Places of Interest
Atri is a small village in Begunia police station situated in 20 degree 15'N and 85 degree 30'E. It is by road about 13 km. from Khurda and 2 km. from Baghamari which is motorable throughout the year. Amidst paddy fields a hot spring bubbles up from the ground and a strong odour of sulphur pervades the locality. The temperature of the spring water is about 55 degree celsius. The soil at the spring and for a considerable distance round it, is composed of alluvium, of marl and laterite. The water of the hot spring is collected in a reservoir which is provided with outlets to prevent stagnation. The circumference of the reservoir is 10 feet and the depth is 15 feet. The water is clear and stones lying at the bottom of the reservoir are visible when the sun's rays fall on the water. It has been calculated that per hour 375 cubic feet of water is flowing out of the reservoir. The temple of Hatakeswara (Siva) is situated near-by where Sivaratri and Makar Sankranti festivals are held and are attended by a large number of people. The Makar Sankranti festivals lasts for about a fortnight. On the Sankranti day nearly twenty thousand people congregrate at the mela. The festival is managed by a local committee. There is a belief that the spring has the miraculous power of removing the curse of barrenness from women.People throw into the reservoir coconuts, betel nuts, and other fruits and flowers as offering. Barren women come to the reservoir before dawn, at about 3.00 a.m., and search in the reservoir bed for fruits, nuts, etc. Whatever thing their hands could catch they eat with the belief that they would be blessed with child within a year. A bathing complex has been constructed by the Tourism Department. Population of the village in 1981 was 1038 persons.BALIPATNA
Balipatna is a village in the police station the same name and is 21 km. from Bhubaneswar by road. The place is connected by Uttara-Balakati-Nimapara road which is a branch road of the State Highway No.8. The place is famous for being the birth place of poet Ananta popularly known as Sisu Ananta, one of the Pancha Sakha poets of the 16th century A.D.
At a little distance from Balipatna, there is a small village called Amankuda, a little away of which flows the Prachi river. An old image of tweleve-armed Durga, called Barabhuji is worshiped here.BALUGAON
Balugaon situated in 85 degree 13'E and 19 degree 45'N, is a small town bordering the Chilka lake. It lies on the National Highway No.5 and is served by a railway station of the South Eastern Railway. The town is gradually prospering because of its export trade in fish supplied by the Chilka lake. It is also a commercial centre with Banpur area as its hinderland. Ferry service is available from here to cross the Chilka and reach places like Garh Krushnaprasad in Parikud, Malud, etc. Close to the ferry route is Kalijai. It is situated on a small hill, half merged under the water. A temple was constructed on the top of the hill by the ex-Raja of Parikud, where goddess Kalijai is being worshipped. The goddess is highly revered by the local people, particularly by the fishing community, and big fairs on the occasion of the Makar Sankranti and the Raja Sankranti are held evry year.
About 5 km. from Balugaon is Barakul from where the scenic beauty of the Chilka can be better enjoyed. At Barakul there is an Inspection Bungalow of the Public Works Department on the bank of the lake.BANAMALIPUR
Banamalipur, a village in Balipatna police station is situated on the bank of river Kushabhadra. It is an important trading centre in the area. A market sits here for two days a week, i.e., on Tuesday and Saturday. The main commodity for sale being pan or betel leaf. Pan is exported from here to different parts of Orissa as well as to some adjoining States. The village is not directly approachable by bus service as the river Kushabhadra is not bridged. Buses plying from Cuttack, Bhubaneswar, Puri and other places stop on the other side of the river.
At a distance of about one and half kilometres from Banamalipur the Siva temples of Beleswar and Tribeniswar are situated in the village Bhapur. Every year on the Magha Amabasya day a big fair called 'Tribeni Mela' is held here. On this day in the early morning thousands of people take their holy dip in the river 'Prachi' to wash off sins.
The village Bhanragarh is situated on the Kushabhadra at a distance of about 3 km. from Banamalipur. Here, on the wall of the temple of Madhukeswar Siva there is an inscription written in old Oriya script.BANPUR
Banpur is a town situated in 85 degree 10'E and 19 degree 47'N in the south-west of Khurda. It is 5 km. to the north-west of the Balugaon railway station with which it is connected by an all weather road. Buses and rickshaws ply from Balugaon to this place. The town consists of the revenue mauzas of Banpur, Bhagabatipur, Bispatna, Jagannathpur, Dasarathipur and Bodhapur. The town has derived its name from Banasura, a demon-king of legendry fame, who is said to have ruled over this place. A line of feudal lords, the ancestors of the Rajas of Parikud, were reigning from here till the 18th century when the Raja of Khurda drove them away to Parikud. The old fort of Banpur was destroyed under orders of the East India Company during its early years of occupation. The place is famous for the temple dedicated to goddess Bhagabati, the presiding deity of Banpur. It is one of the famous Shakti Pithas of Orissa. The temple stands on the edge of a deep pool within a high enclosure wall. The temple is managed by a committee appointed by the Commissioner of Endowments, Orissa. The Sebayats of the temple have been given landed property to perpetuate their service in the temple. There is a Siva temple at Banpur known as Daksheswar or Dakshya Prajapati temple situated at the entrance of the town. It is an old temple and contains fine specimens of Orissan architecture and sculpture.
At a distance of about 14 km. to the west of Banpur the Salia Dam has been constructed amidst a picturesque site. The dam has been constructed at the catchment area connecting two hills on both the sides and serves as a minor irrigation projectBARUNAI HILL
Barunai is a small hill (304.8 metres high) situated in 85 degree 39'E and 20 degree 9'30" N, and is about one and half kilometres to the south of Khurda town. It is a saddle-backed hill, rising into bare and often inaccessible precipices. A large portion of the hill is covered by reserve forest where teak grows luxuriantly.
The Bhoi Kings of Orissa made Khurda their capital during Muslim occupation. They lived in a fort that stood at the foot of the hill. The site was apparently selected because of its strategic position. It was protected on one side by the hill, which was easily defended and on the other side by dense, almost impenetrable jungle. In the time of Virakishore Deva(1736-1780) the fort was taken by the Maratha and in 1804, during the Khurda rebellion, it was carried by storm by the East India Company troops after a siege of three weeks. The fort is now in ruins, some traces of its walls and the ramparts still remaining. Some mounds mark the site of the Raja's palace. On the northern slope of the hill, at a height of about 45.72 metres (a hundred and fifty feet) above the plain, is the temple of Barunai, where a large fair is held for three or four days on the occasion of the Raja Sankranti festival in the month of June. Inside the small temple are placed two rude images of black stone, called goddesses Varunai and Karuani, sitting together. They are now worshiped as forms of goddess Durga, the Pujari being a Brahmin, but their origin might possibly be from the Vajrayana cult. A perennial spring flows down the hill by the side of the shrine. Thick mango groves on both the sides of the stone-steps leading up to the temple have added to the beauty of the place. The hill contains several caves of which the largest one is known as Pandavaguha, capable of accommodating one hundred persons. Rows of low rocky pallets line the floor, and it has obviously been the residence of Hindu ascetics. There are a few inscriptions of considerable age, e.g., that of Makaradhwaja Yogi, dated 900 of an unspecified era, another dated Samabt 780, and three others inscribed in old Kutila characters. There is a Rest house near the temple of Barunai with an accommodation for seven persons.BHUBANESWAR
Bhubaneswar (20 degree 15'N latitude and 85 degree 50'E longitude) is the name which has been given to a area covering 91.9414 square kilometres. It covers 28 villages or rather mouzas which are revenue units. These mauzas are Purba Badagada, Paschima Badagada, Bhubaneswar, Kapileswar, Haripur Patna, Lakshmisagar, Lakshmisagarpatna, Bhimpur, Siripur, Rampur, Bomikhal, Govindaprasad, Kalaraput, Sudarpada, Kapilprasad, Pokhariput, Berna, Nayapalli, Barmunda, Jagamara, Jharapada, Charbatia, Nuagaon, Gada Gopinathprasad, Pandara, Garkan, Chandrasekharpur and Damana. The mauza Bhubaneswar (now commonly called Old town) has been known as such for many centuries and the place has evidently derived its name from its principal deity Tri-Bhubaneswar or Bhubaneswar.
Bhubaneswar has two distinct divisions, viz., the Old Town and the New Capital. The Old Town is characterised by mixed land-use which is a usual phenomenon with all ancient towns and cities of India. It contains splendid specimens of Kalinga architecture spanning some twenty-five centuries of history, depicting the grace, the joy and the rhytm of life in all its wondrous variety. The New Capital, the foundation of which was laid in 1948, was started with a portion of a reserved forest as nucleus. It has now become a city which has been built expending crores of rupees. This part is a planned administrative town with broad avenues, self-contained residential units, modern buildings and institutions. Thus Bhubaneswar offers an opportunity to behold centuries-old art and architecture, side by side modern massive buildings and institutions.
The Bhubaneswar is bounded on the north by the villages Patia, Rokat and Mancheswar; on the east by the villages Koradakanta, Keshura, Bankual, Basuaghai, Mahabhoi Sasan, and Raghunathpur; on the south by the villages Kukudaghai, Orakala, Ebaranga, and Bahadalpur; and on the west by the villages Jadupur, Begunia, Dumuduma, Jokalandi, Andharua and Jagannathprasad.
Bhubaneswar is situated at an altitude of 45 metres (146 feet) above the sea-level. It has a bracing climate with a maximum and minimum temperature of 31.0 degree celcius and 16.0 degree celcius during winter, and 38.0 degree celcius and 27.0 degree celcius during summer respectively. The average rainfall in a year is 152.4 centimetres (60 inches). The period from October to April is considered to be the best season of the place. It enjoys the healthy climate of the forest country, the cooling sea breeze coming across the verdant delta area which is agriculturally rich. The city is connected by rail, road and airways. It is on the mail line of the South-Eastern Railway. The National Highway No. 5 runs through the city. An excellent air port with concrete runway has been constructed in the Bhimpur mauza on an area of 725 acres.
It is not known when and how human efforts were first at work to give a start to this centre of civilisation. Extensive ruins representing an ancient city are, however, found at Sisupalgarh about 2.5 km. to the south-east of Bhubaneswar and about 5 km. from the famous rock edicts of Asoka at Dhauli hill which take the origin of the city back to the fourth century B.C. The famous Kalinga War that changed the mind of Asoka took place on the bank of the river Daya, six kilometres from Bhubaneswar. The next landmark in the history of Bhubaneswar is provided by monuments of the Udayagiri and the Khandagiri hills, situated on the western side of the place, particularly by the famous Hatigumpha inscription of Kharavela engraved in one of the caves there. The date of Kharavela is fixed in the middle of the first century B.C. he conquered many countries, gave them a good administration and played a prominent part in religious and cultural activities. It is understood from the Hathigumpha Inscription that the Kumari hill was a centre of Jaina activities where honoured and reputed recluses, Yatis, hermits and sages hailed from different directions.
It was probably Satakarni II who put an end to Kharavela's dynasty and his empire. There are evidences of the existence of stupa structure, Yaksa images, the black-and-red and rouletted wares, terracotta bullae, ear ornaments and later Andhra coins in the Bhubaneswar area, possibly belonging to the period of Satavahans which ended in about the 3rd century A.D.
The period intervening between the end of the Kushana dynasty and the rise of the Imperial Guptas, is the darkest period of Indian history. The same darkness envelops the history of Bhubaneswar. The so called Puri-Kushana coins were discovered from the excavations at Sisupalgarh. A gold coin found from the Sisupalgarh excavation also resembles a coin-type of Vasudeva I on the obverse and bears a Roman head on the reverse. The legend on the coin has been read by Dr.Altekar who thinks that the king Dharmadamadhara of the coin might have been a Murunda king. The Murundas were foreigners hailing from the north-west and were responsible for the currency in Orissa of the coins that have distintly imitated the Kushana coin type. Now it is difficult to say when and how the epoch represented by the so-called Puri-Kushana coins ended.
There are evidence to show that the Guptas were in occupation of at least the coastal districts of Orissa. The discovery of the sculptures at Bhubaneswar bearing the Gupta characteristics indicate a strong influence exercised by the Gupta Cultural Age at this place. With the end of the sixth century A.D. Bhubaneswar entered upon a new stage as it had played a great part in the east in the revival of Hinduism. A Saiva temple was built in the shrine of Tri-Bhubaneswar, which is no longer in existence.
By the middle of the seventh century A.D. the Sailodbhava of Kongod (Ganjam) asserted their independence and grew very powerful. The discovery of the Sailodbhava copper-plates from Khurda and from Parikud in the Puri district indicates that Bhubaneswar was included in the Sailodbhava Kingdom and the temples of the Parasurameswara group belong to this period. The next dynasty that occupied Bhubaneswar for a period of about hundred years was the Bhauma-karas. The Vaital-Sisireswara group of temples were constructed during this period. It was during this period that we find Tantrism mixed up with Saivism which is known as Saktism first made its appearance in Bhubaneswar. After the break up of the Bhauma kingdom about the middle of the 9th century A.D. Orissa was divided into a number of small principalities, each ruled by a Chief of its own. During this period of disunity, no notable monuments have been built at Bhubaneswar except a few plain temples such as the Mohini, the Uttareswara and some other structures standing in the midst of houses in the Old Town.
In a way, the Somavamsi-Kesari Kings were the makers of modern Utkala or Orissa. They established their rule in Orissa at a time when it had suffered from a long period of anarchy and misrule. Their manifold activities which ushered in a new age in Orissa, made a lasting impression on the minds of the people which is still current in the land in the form of traditions. It was Janmejaya who first conquered Odra; but during the reigns of his successors Kosala, Utkala, Kongoda, and the parts of what was known as Kalinga gradually came to be united by cultural and linguistic bonds. The Somavamsis were cosmopolitan in their religious outlook, retaining all the conventions sanctioned through long practice in the preceding centuries. They revived the most important Vaishnava shrine of Jagannath at Puri; raised the greatest Saiva temple at Bhubaneswar, besides a number of small ones. The glorious period of the Somavamsis passed with the death of Uddyota Kesari.
Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva of the Ganga dynasty dealt a blow to the Somavamsis and stepped into their place in the coastal region early in the 12th century A.D. There is an inscription in the Lingaraj temple which records the gift of a perpetual lamp by Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva in 1114 A.D. So his connection with Bhubaneswar had begun earlier than 1114 A.D. though direct connexion of the Gangas with Utkala began with his conquest in 1118 A.D. The connexion of some of the successors of Chodaganga Deva with Bhubaneswar can also be traced from the inscription which recorded the endowment of perpetual lamps in the shrine of Kruttivasa (Lingaraja). These documents in their totality give us an idea about the long connexion of the Ganga Kings with Bhubaneswar. After the Gangas, the glorious period of temple-building activities in Orissa was over; but the spirit lingered on during the Suryavamsi supremacy. The half-ruined porch standing near the Papanasini tank bears an inscription referring itself to the reign of Kapileswara Deva (A.D.1435-1467). After the fall of the Suryavamsi dynasty art and architecture languished due to the lack of royal patronage.
The empire established by Kapileswara Deva was short-lived, for under Prataprudra Deva who ruled from 1497 to 1541, it was already on the decline. A period of turmoil followed Prataprudra's death leading to the establishment of the short -lived Bhoi dynasty which, however, was put to an end by Mukunda Deva Harichandan in 1559-60. But Mukunda Deva could not live long, for, he was attacked by Sulaiman Karrani of Bengal and was killed by a local traitor in 1568 A.D. The death of Mukunda Deva marked the end of Hindu rule in Orissa. The Moghuls, the Nazims of Bengal, the Marathas, and the British then successively ruled Orissa; but Bhubaneswar has been continuing as an important religious centre. In 1948, Bhubaneswar come into prominence in the political map of India being the new Capital of the State.
The New Capital :
The site for the New Capital was selected after careful consideration. It has the advantage of lying on the border between the fertile delta land and the hilly forest areas of Orissa. It has the natural advantage with regard to drainage. The ground slopes from west to east and is divided into two parts intersected by the railway line. The western part is high land with laterite soil which permits the growth of forest and the eastern part is low with alluvial soil suitable for agriculture. From April to August the prevailing wind is from south and south-west and from September to March it is from north and north-west. The velocity of wind is maximum in summer.
A plan for the New Capital was prepared in 1948 by Dr. Otto H. Koenigsberger. On his recommendation the design of the New Capital is based on the system of neighbourhood units which means a group of houses, large enough to afford the major amenties of urban life like schools, dispensaries, shoping-centres, entertainment, public libraries, etc. but at the same time small enough to keep all these amenties in short distances, so that the main advantage of rural life can be preserved. Moreover, to avoid boredom and unformity the neighbourhood units are designed individually with the object of giving it a distinct character.
In contrast to the Old Town, the land under different uses are segregated from each other so that the foul smell, smoke or dust of an industry does not affect the residential areas nor the crown and noise of a commercial area affect the silence and solemnity of an administrative or educational area.
Four categories of roads have been adopted for the city, namely, (a) Arterial Road, (b) Major Unit Road, (c) Major Housing Street and (d) Minor Housing street. The Arterial roads are 200 feet(60.9600 metres) in width with earthen flanks or foot-path of 10 feet (3.0480 metres) on each side and provided with drains and plantations. Rajpath, Janpath, Gandhi Marga, Sachivalaya Marga, and Udyana Marga come under this category. The Major Unit Roads are 150 feet (45.7200 metres) in width with earthen flanks, drains and plantations on each side. Ekamra Marga, Lewis Road, Gopabandhu Marga, Bhubaneswar Marga, Vivekananda Marga, Bidyt Marga and Puri Marga are under this category. The Major Housing Streets are the roads which collect the internal traffic of housing units and transmit to the major and arterial roads. The width of such roads is 100 feet (30.4800 metres) provided with earthen flanks and drains. The width of Minor Housing Streets varies between 30 feet (9.1440 metres) to 40 feet (12.1920 metres) depending upon the importance of the locality.
The Units are named after the great personalities and the royal dynasties of Orissa viz., Bapuji Nagar, Kharavela Nagar, Asoka Nagar, Kesari Nagar, Gopabandhu Nagar, Bhauma Nagar, Ganga Nagar, Goutama Nagar, Surya nagar, Bhoi Nagar, Madhusudan Nagar, Buddha Nagar,etc. The areas particularly allotted for the construction of private buildings are named as Labour Colony, Bapuji Nagar, Satya Nagar, Sahid Nagar, Jayadev Nagar, Acharya Vihar, etc. Besides, there are certain areas which have been allotted for the construction of private buildings. The institutional areas are named as the Vani Vihar, the Regional Research Laboratory, the Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology and the Regional College of Education Campus. The Gift Press and the Sainik School are situated in the Garkan mauza and the Capital Water Works in the Pandara mauza. An area of 231 acres has been allotted for an Industrial Estate.
On the western side of the city in Unit-VIII, the life size bronze statue of Utkalmani Gopabandhu Das has been erected and the place is named as Gopabandhu Square. The Gandhi Memorial Pillar and statue, and the statue of Utkalmani Pandit Gopabandhu Das have been erected in the premises of the Orissa State Legislative Assembly. A statue of Swami Vivekananda has been erected at the Rajpath and Janapath crossing. The bronze statue representing a police constable erected in front of the Orissa State Museum on the occasion of the Police Centenary, was demolished in a riot caused by a student's strike in 1964. The statue of Pandit Godavarish Misra has been erected in the campus of Vani Vihar. Almost all the residential areas are provided with high water towers made of re-inforced concrete. These water towers of different designs look like great minars in the sky line of Bhubaneswar.
Among the notable buildings in the New Capital are the Raj Bhavan, the Orissa Secretariat, the Orissa Legislative Assembly, the Orissa State Museum, the Multi-storied Heads of Departments, the Rabindra Mandap, the Suchana Bhavan, the Utkal Sangeet Mahavidyalaya, the Orissa State Archives, the Central Market Building, the Vani Vihar, the University of Agriculture and Technology, the Office of the Post Master General, the Accontant General Office and the Gandhi Bhavan meant for the Orissa State Library. The Orissa State Museum is worth visiting for its sculptural treasures.
Bhubaneswar has assumed the imprtance as an institutional town where important centres of learning and research are located. The existence of Vani Vihar (Utkal University Campus), University of Agriculture and Technology, Regional College of Education, Sainik School, Regional Research Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Institute of Industrial Management, State Institute of Education, the Eastern Regional Language Institute, Regional Research Institute(Ayurveda), Tribal Research Bureu, State Forensic Laboratory, Administrative Training School, Tribal and Oriental Training Centre, Account's Training School, Co-operative Training College, Homoeopathy College and various kinds of schools and colleges imparting general education attract scholars from both inside and outside the country. The libraries at Vanivihar, the Orissa State Museum, the Orissa State Archives and the Orissa Secretariat are having a good collection of books, records, references and documents. Besides, there are four public libraries, namely, the Vivekananda Public Library organised by the Ramakrishna Math and Mission, the library of State Information Bureu, the Orissa State Library and the Children's Library located in the Children's Park in Unit-VI.
Among the children and public parks mention may be made of the Forest Park, the Adivasi Ground Park and the Children's Parks in Unit-I, Unit-III and Unit-IV.
There are numerous temples in the Old Town built from the 6th century A.D. to the 15th century A.D. an account of which is given below according to their period of construction. Many of these are covered from top to bottom with exquisite relief carvings with delicate floral and geometric designs, figures of gods and godlings, nymphs and dryads of the woods, and couples in amorous embrace.
The two temples, commonly known as Lakshmaneswara and Satrughneswara, standing in a row (along with Bharateswara) opposite to the much later Rameswara temple by the side of the road leading to the Lingaraj temple have generally been regarded as the earliest temples. The period of the Satrughneswara and Lakshmaneswara temples is assigned to the close of the sixth century A.D. The Satrughneswara represents a sikhara temple. The sculptures of this temple are marked by the vigour and exuberance of the designs recalling the best characteristics of the post-Gupta art.
The date of the Parasurameswara temple has been assigned to 650 A.D. At Bhubaneswar there are at least two other temples, such as, the Bharateswara (opposite the Rameswar temple, standing alongwith the Satrughneswara and the Lakshmaneswara), and the Swarnajaleswara temple which can be recognised as close cognates of the Parasurameswara. The conservation work of the temple Swarnajaleswara has been undertaken by the Archaeology Department, Government of Orissa. The Parasurameswara temple, a small but lavishly decorated temple, embodying nearly all the characteristics peculiar thereto. Enclosed within a compound wall, the temple facing west, is a small compact shrine with squattish thick-set gandi, while the Jagamohan, instead of being stepped pyramid as in the typical Orissan temples, is a rectangular structure with a terraced roof.
The next epoch (C.A.D. 700-900) produced a large number of temples at Bhubaneswar, of which ten or twelve are still in its original condition and the rest have perished leaving a number of detached sculptures. So far as architecture is concerned, these temples are characterised by the Pancha-Ratha plan unlike the Tri-Ratha plan of temples of the earlier group. The Jagamohans are of the same type with one door but no window and pillars inside. A Buddhist inspiration had influenced the iconography and execution of a few images which may be traced to the influence of the Bhaumas. The above characteristics are common to the Markandeswara, the Taleswara, the Vaital, the Sisireswara, the Mohini and the Uttareswara. The Vaital temple is remarkable for its uncommonly barrel shaped double-storied tower.
The Mukteswara is one of the most beautiful temples of India and has been described as a dream realised in sandstone. Elegantly decorated from top to bottom, it stands within a gracefully laid out low compound wall with a beautiful torana in front. Apart from its beautiful sculptures that eloquently speak of the sense of proportion and perspective of the sculptures and their extraordinary skill, the temple also reveals some notable features both in architecture and in the attributes of the cult images, which with some or no modification came to be the standard of all the other important temples that followed it. The builder of the Mukteswar borrowed certain features from the early architectural tradition but also introduced new architectural designs, new art motifs and new conceptions about the iconography of the cult images. The abrupt changes in the early forms of the cult images, in the architectural designs and even in the minute details of the sculptural representations indicate that the builder of the Mukteswara was the harbinger of a new culture. The date of the temple is assigned somewhere between the temples of Sisireswara (800 A.D.) and the Brahmeswara (1060 A.D.). There are two other temples at Bhubaneswar which may be regarded as close conteporaries of the Mukteswara. One of them is the Sureswara, a very small structure, which stands near the Kotitirtheswara temple in the close neighbourhood of the Swarnajaleswara, and the other is the Gauri temple situated in the compound of the Kedareswara.
The superb temple of Rajarani bears certain architectural features rare in their occurrence in the other temples at Bhubaneswar. In spite of such features, which seem to lend it a somewhat exotic appearance, the temple has a distinct relation with the evolution of the Orissan temple form. The figures are so beautiful that stealing still goes on. About the time of the last Govinda Dwadashi a head was broken and stolen. During last few years another head has been stolen. The figure of a damsel playing with a bat and a ball had its head a few years ago. Now it is without one. All this is happening inspite of watchman being appointed. Its magnificent sculptures are unparallled in the history of plastic art in Orissa, and they are more akin to the Mukteswara, the Brhameswara and the Lingaraja, than to any other. Hence, it is apparent that its chronological position lies somewhere about the dates of these temples.
Dr. Krushna Chandra Panigrahi has tried to show that the original name of the temple was Indreswara and that it was a Saiva shrine. Mano Mohan Ganguly has written that the present name Rajarani has been derived from a "very fine grained yellowish sandstone called Rajarania in common parlance" with which the entire edific has been built. The Chief Editor, Gazetteers, Orissa, has observed, "The name Rajarani may have come from the name of the stone or the name of the stone may have come from the name of the temple. A visit to the interior of the temple makes two points clear :
(a) There never was a deity in the temple
(b) When Rajarani was built multiple storeyed building and use of iron beams had come into vogue.
Jagamohan of Rajarani shows some numbers on the stones which probably meant that it has been rebuilt".
What strikes the visitor at the first sight is the cluster of minature rekhas around the gandi. The temple is noted for the well-preserved dik-palas, all on the corner projections of the lower jangha. Clad in diaphanous drapery they stand on lotuses, with their mounts below. The celebrity of the Rajarani temple is also to a large extent due to the tall and slender sophisticated nayikas carved in high relief and depicted in various roles and moods.
The Dakra Bhimeswara temple that bears the feature of the Rajarani may also be assigned to this period. It stands on the left side of the road to Puri in the close neighbourhood of the eastern gate of Lingaraja compound. This monuments has projecting turrets in its sikhara in the same way as those of the Rajarani, and like the latter, a number of obscene figures also.
The next dated temple is the Brahmeswara, erected about 1060 A.D. by Kolavati Devi, mother of the Somavamsi king Uddyota Kesari in the eighteenth year of his reign. The Brahmeswara temple supplies some well-marked features and characteristics that became distinctive of the Orissan temple type in the later ages. The Orissan temple form as one sees in the Brahmeswar, and so grandly exemplified in the majestic Lingaraja, is certainly the result of a long process of evolution through centuries. This is the second temple at Bhubaneswar with internal embellishments in the Jagamohan, the first being the Mukteswara.
The temple of Lingaraja is the most notable temple not only of Bhubaneswar, but also of Orissa; and according to expert opinions is also one of the best archaeological monuments of the East. Rising to a height of about 180 feet (54.8640 metres) and dominating the entire landscape within an area of about fifteen kilometres this great temple represents the quintessence of the Kalinga type of architecture and the culminating result of the architectural activities at Bhubaneswar. It stands in the midst of a number of smaller temples within a spacious compound of laterite measuring 520 feet (158.4960 metres) in length and 465 feet (141.7320 metres) in breadth and having gates on the east, north and south. So much has been said about its architectural features that very little remains to be said. Prof. R.D.Banerji records from his personal observation that the sanctuary is a hollow pyramid composed of several superimposed chambers, the access to which is obtained by a staircase built through the thickness of the wall. Barring this peculiarity, the sanctuary is otherwise a Panch-Ratha deul having close architectural affinities with the Brahmeswara temple.
The Lingaraja temple is a combination of four structures, all in the same axial alignment, viz., deul, jagamohan, natamandira and bhogamandapa, the last two being subsequent additions. The bada of the sanctuary has five divisions. The pabhaga consists of five richly-carved mouldings. The corner and intermediary rathas of the lower jangha are relieved with khakhara mundis having the seated figures of eight dik-palas. The recesses between the rathas are filled in with varieties of gaja-vidalas and nara-vidalas. The bandhana is made of three finely-carved mouldings and the baranda of ten. In the recess are nayikas of enchanting grace and beauty in various actions. The carvings on the mundis and in mouldings, rich and minute as they are, do not overshadow the essential character of the figure themselves-a remark that as well applies to the entire temple itself. The grandeur of the temple chiefly lies in its towering gandi. The effect of its great height is accentuated by the deeply incised curved vertical lines which sour upwards to its top. The number of bhumis in kanika-paga has been increased to ten, and the bhumi-amlas have assumed a new form, rounded at the corner and rectangular at the sides. The decoration of the raha above the projecting lion, rampart on an elephant, is a series of chaitya-windows in low relief. The ponderous amalaka is supported by dopichha lions at corners and four-armed seated figures, one each above the raha.
The jagamohan is equally monumental and closely follows the deul in decorative details. The pidhas are arranged in two tiers, each crowned by a lion above a bho-motif. The vertical sides of all the nine pidhas of the lower tier are relieved with friezes consisting of processions of infantry, cavalry, elephants, etc.
Both the Natamandira and the Bhogamandapa are open halls and the former has a flat roof. The images of Ganesha, Kartikeya, and Parvati appear respectively in the western, eastern and northern niches of the sanctuary. The life size images of the parswa debatas are all chlorite. The fine scroll work to decorate the garments of the deities and the magnificent backgrounds against which these deities appear, indicate a supreme artistic taste and the zenith of the decorative art of the period. The temple of Lingaraja was built in the 11th century A.D.
The next dated temple is the Kedareswara. The inscription in the Kedareswara temple proves that it was built before 1142 A.D. Three other temples, which appear to be cognate members of this temple, are the Rameswara, the Alayukeswara and the Siddheswara. These temples represent a period when some of the most ancient shrines were renovated or reconstructed. All these temples are of Pancha-Ratha type. A study of the western side of Siddheswara clearly shows that the stones were of an older temple, otherwise a piece which obviously meant to be placed horizontally could not have been placed vertically. This probably was not an accident, but purposely done to indicate that it was not the original temple, but rebuilt from the stones of a former temple. Here also many stones have numbers engraved on them to show that it was a rebuilt temple.
The Megheswara (1195 A.D.) and the Ananta Basudeva (1278 A.D.) temples were built definitely during the Ganga period. The Megheswara, the earliest of the Ganga temples at Bhubaneswar, shows the beginning of a Sapta-Ratha plan, and as time passed on, it came to be the established rule with the Ganga monuments. The accumulated experiences of the past in the temple building were utilised to build strong and compact edifices skilfully. During this period, in all the important structures, the frontal adjunct consisted of three chambers known as the Jagamohan (audience hall), the Natamandira (dancing hall) and the Bhogamandapa (offering hall). The iron beams which began to be used in the preceding period, now came to be used regularly, because of the increase of projection and their further subdivisions. Another new feature introduced was the Bahana-Stambha set up in front of the shrines.
The other important monuments belonging to this period are the Bhaskareswara, the Yameswara, the Mitreswara, the Varuneswara, the Chitreswara, the Sari temple, the temple of Parvati inside the Lingaraja temple and the Vakeswara. The Vakeswara is important in having a Naba-Ratha plan, the only monument of this plan at Bhubaneswar. Besides the temples mentioned above, the Ganga peirod also witnessed the construction of a large number of smaller temples, such as Someswara, Gosahasreswara, Bhavanisankar and several unnamed ones. In the compound of the Lingaraja temple alone there are about a dozen temples which bear some of the Ganga characteristics.
After the Gangas, the glorious period of temple-building activities in Orissa was over. But the spirit lingered on during the Suryavamsi supremacy which also witnessed the erection of some notable temples in Orissa. The temple of Kapileswara appears to be the last notable monument to be built at Bhubaneswar. It is situated on the bank of the Gangua about 1.6 km. to the south of the Lingaraja temple. It has a three-chambered frontal complex, but the late date of the temple is more evident from its cult images.
Religious shrines in the New Capital area :
In the New Capital area several miniature temples have been constructed at different places. These temples, excepting the Chintamaniswara, Bhuasuni and Budheswari have been constructed during the last forty years. Among these temples there are several Saiva, Sakta and Vaishnava temples built in stone or brick in Orissan style with cement plasters on it. Most of these temples are devoid of architectural skill, designs and decoratives. They are mainly constructed to meet the social and religious needs of the people, such as, daily worship, marriage ceremony, sacred thread ceremony, Janmastami, Sabitri Brata, Siva Ratri, Dola Jatra, etc. All these temples are built through public charity and donations.
Among these temples mention may be made of the Jagannath temple in Unit VII; the Radha-Krushna temple in Unit-IX; the Sri Rama temple in Kharavela Nagar; the Jhadeswari temple in Siripur; the Bana Durga temple in Ganga Nagar; the Chintamanishwara temple and the Budheswari temple in the Old Station Bazar; the Bhuasuni temple near Santarapur Bazar; the Raghunath temple in Kesari Nagar and the shrine of Jagneswara and the Sivananda Prayer Hall in Asoka Nagar.
Besides these Hindu religious shrines, there is one mosque, two churches, one Guru Dwara, one Buddha Vihar and one Jaina temple in the New Capital area.
The mosque was constructed in 1959 in Bhauma Nagar on the western side of the Sachivalaya Marga. The Sunni Muslims usually congregate here for general prayer on every Friday and their festival days. There is a Madrasa attached to the mosque.
The foundation stone of the Protestant church, called the Union Church, was laid on the 17th December,1960. It is located in Bhauma Nagar near the mosque. In this church all the Christians of Protestants denominations can be members. On every Sunday and ecclesiastical days people of the Christian community congregate here for prayer and for celebrating the festivals. The Church is under the charge of a Pastor. The Roman Catholoc church, called the Saint Vincent De Paul Church, was established in December, 1968 at Satya Nagar. A Parish Priest is in charge of this church. The office of the Archbishop is located in the premises. On every Sunday and ecclesiastical days the Roman Catholics assemble here to pray and to observe their festivals.
There is one Guru Dwara of Sikhs. It was established in 1960 in Kharavela Nagar. The holy book of the Sikha "Guru Granth Sahib" is worshipped here. The Guru Dwara also runs a charitable homoeopathy dispensary.
An area has been earmarked in Unit-9 on the eastern side of the Sachivalya Marg, for the construction of a Buddha Vihar. It is allotted to the Mahabodhi Socieity of India. The Holy Bodhi Tree has been planted here and a cement platform has been constructed around it.
Tanks and Springs:
Next to temples, the objects most deserving of notice in Bhubaneswar are its tanks. As regards the origin of the tanks it may be said that every temple must have had a device to take very heavy blocks of stone to a great height. This could be done only on earthen ramps which could be raised as the height of the temple increased. The inside of the temple must also be filled with earth to prevent collapsing before the temple was completed. The stones were placed on wooden rollers and rolled up the ramps. The earth for these was dug, so that a tank could be formed. That is a reason why every big temple or group of temples has a tank in the neighbourhood. The surplus stone brought for building the temple was used for lining the embankments and building steps. After the temple was completed the earth was removed from the ramps as well as from inside the temple and spread outside leaving the temple floor lower than the sorrounding ground. Sometimes there was so much of surplus stone that the only way to dispose it of was to build temples outside as was done at Brahmeswara. The outside temples have no carvings.
Bindusagar : The biggest is the Bindusagar tank. The size of this tank is 1300' (396.2400 metres) x 700' (213.3600 metres) and the depth of the tank is 10' (3.0480 metres). It is embanked with stone forming magnificent flights of steps. In its north-east corner is a channel, under a stone covering, which was apparently designed for letting in outside water. In the centre is an island 100' (33.5280 metres) x 110' (33.5280 metres) protected by stone revetment, with a small temple in its north-east corner. Before the temple there is a terrace with an artificial fountain in the centre. The tank is fed by one or more natural fountains at the bottom. Around the tank there are some bigh and small temples. Pilgrims as well as local residents bathe in it. It is believed to contain drops from all the sacred pools on earth, in heaven, in the lower region, as also of nectar, wine, holy butter and all that is most delectable constantly fall into it. The religious merit of the water is lauded in the highest terms in the Padma Purana, the Brahmanda Purana, the Siva Purana, the Brahma Purana, the Kapila Samhita and the Ekamra Purana. The Ekamra Chandrika gives the details of ceremonies to be observed in this tank, including sraddha and a tarpana.
Saharsa Linga Tank : On the eastern side of the Lingaraja temple there is a tank called Saharsa linga sara or 'tank of a thousand Lingas'. Originally, there were a number of small temples ranged round the tank. Each had in its centre a Linga. At present, there are 77 miniature temples in good condition of which only five have Lingas left uncared for and unworshipped. The area around these temples serves as a kitchen garden for the Lingaraja temple, and the tank supplies the water necessary for all the ordinary purposes of the divinity. the Navagraha images have been carved out on the northern side of the compound wall.
Kotitirtheswara Tank : Behind the temple of Kotitirtheswara there is a tank lined with stones, and having a flight of steps on the west side. It is believed that this is the repository of the waters of ten million sacred pools, and pilgrims bathe in it to wash off their accumulated sins.
Brahma Kunda : To the west of the temple Brahmeswara, close by its terrace, there is a large tank called Brahma Kunda, and its sin-rinsing merits are lauded in high terms by the Ekamra Purana, but being situated far away from the town, few pilgrims visit it.
Mukteswara Kunda : Close behind the temple of Mukteswara there is an oblong tank 100 feet (30.4800 metres) x 25 feet (7.6200 metres), lined with stone revements on three sides, and having a flight of steps on the fourth.
Gauri Kunda : Immediately to the south of the Mukteswara temple, within a distance of about thirty feet (9.1440 metres) the Gauri Kunda is located. It is to the east of Gouri's temple. The pool is 70 feet (21.3360 metres) long, and 28 feet (8.5344 metres) broad, and has a depth of 16 feet (4.8768 metres). Its sides are perpendicular, being lined by stone revements; but on the south side there is a flight of stone steps, 20 feet long (6.0960 metres) long, and altogether 10 feet (3.0840 metres) broad. The bottom is formed of small boulders. Its water is tepid, but not so as to be in any way injurious to fish, for there area a number of small fish playing about in excellent condition. The water is beautifully clear, and every part of the bottom is visible at mid-day when sun-shine falls on it. The conviction is that a devotee who, putting a few seeds of the black seasmum on his head, bathes in it for a year, beginning with the 9th of the wane in any month, obtains whatever he desires.
Dudha Kunda & Kedara Kunda : To the west of the Kedareswar temple there is a well called Dudha Kunda. It has a perennial and natural spring and the water is said to have medicinal properties. The water of this spring is recommended by some for dyspepsia. To the east of Kedareswara temple there is a small pool called Kedara Kunda.
Asoka Jhara : Close by the temple of Rameswara there is a tank of moderate size. It is called Asoka Jhara. Around and about this tank there are some small as well as big temples.
Gosahasreswara Hrada : Close by the temple of Gosahasreswzara there is a tank called the Gosahasra Hrada. According to the Ekamra Purana, it was in this place that Devi first saw a herd of cattle which poured their milk on the Linga, and hence she removed it to the vicinity of Vindusagara, where she encountered the demons Kirti and Vasa.
Papanasini Kunda : Close by the Someswara temple there is a large tank linked with laterite blocks .This tank, on the whole, is in excellent state of preservation. It bears the name of Papanasini, "the destroyer of sin", and to it the proxy of Lord Bhubaneswara is brought every year to celebrate the festival of Prathamastami.
Kapileswara Tank : Near the Kapileswara temple there is a large tank 220 feet (67.0560 metres) x 164 feet (48.9872 metres) with an average depth of 16 feet (4.8768 metres). Its sides are lined with flags of sandstone and it has an excellent Ghat formed of a flight of stone steps. The tank is fed from its bottom by a perennial spring. The water is pure and limpid, and is very much liked by the people.
Bhima Kunda : The Bhima Kunda lies in the Mouza Sundarpada. It is a big tank and the water is used mostly for bathing purpose.
Sukhmeswara Kunda : The Sukhmeswara Kunda lies in the Mouza Kapileswara. It is a small tank. The temple of Sukhmeswara Mahadeva is situated near this tank.
Megheswara Kunda : The Megheswara Kunda is a small one situated on the northern side of the Megheswara temple. The water is used for the worship of Lord Megheswara.
Kausalya Ganga : About 8 km. from Bhubaneswara, on the State Highway No.8 towards Puri, there is a tank named Kausalya Ganga which is famous for pisciculture. In the middle of the tank there is an island-the remains of a palace. The tank is said to have been originally a kos(3.82 km.) long on each side; and though a great part of it is now silted up and under cultivation it is still about one and a half mile long (2.41 km) and five furlongs (1 km) broad. According to the Madala Panji the tank was dug by Gangeswara Deva of Ganga dynasty.
In course of time serveal Mathas, Ashramas and branches of certain reputed Mathas of India were established in Bhubaneswar. The Kapali Matha is one of the oldest Mathas situated to the north-west of the Lingaraja temple. A multilated inscription of the reign of Kapilendra Deva has been found here containing the name of one Ranasurya Mahasenapati. The Matha is now in a dilapidated condition. The Arakhita Das Matha is another old Matha situated near Khandagiri and Udayagiri. This Matha is also now in a dilapidated condition. Among the existing well-known Mathas, a branch of the Ramakrishna Matha and Mission at Bhubaneswar established in 1919 by Swami Brahmananda Maharaj, the first president of the organisation, is well known. The Matha is located in a central place of the City. The first floor of the building was completed in 1923 and was inaugurated by Swami Sivanandaji Maharaja. The organisation is maintaining a charitable dispensary, a Middle English School, an Upper Primary School, a Public Library and a reading room. The Tri-Dandi Goudiya Matha of Achintya Veda-veda sect was established in Bhubaneswar in 1924 in the Mouza Kapileswara. The images of Radha-Krushna are being worshipped here. The Kathia Matha of Nimbarka sect was established in 1935 in Kapileswar Mouza. The Jagannath Matha, a branch of the Sundar Gauranga Matha at Puri, was established in 1941 in the Old Town. The Sadabhuja Gauranga Matha of Keshab Bharati sect was established in 1949 in Srirama Nagar. Besides, there are a few other Mathas, e.g., Sivatirtha Matha, the Sadabarta Matha and the Bharati Matha located in the Old Town area.
After 1949 a few Mathas and Ashramas were established in the New Capital area, notable among them being the Aurobindo Bhavan in Kharavela Nagar and the Baya Baba Matha in Unit-IX. The Aurobindo Bhavan is a branch of the Aurobindo Ashrama of Pondicherry. The Baya Baba Matha was established in August 1972 by the Sri Kalpataru Seva Sangha Society, founded by Namacharya Srimad Sachinandan Das alias Sri Baya Baba. Bhakti-Yoga is practiced here through Namasankirtan. Round the clock, the chanting of the names of Radha-Krushna is carried on by the devotees at the Akhanda Nama Mandap. Recently this organisation has constructed beautiful temples of Radha-Krushna, Siva and Annapurna inside the Matha premises.
Cremation Grounda & Burial Grounds:
There are several cremation grounds in Bhubaneswar. Almost all the revenue units are provided with cremation places. The important cremation grounds are located at Baragarh, Puna Maa Gate, Satya Nagar, and the Old Town. Besides three burial grounds at Satya Nagar; one for the Muslims, one for the Protestants and one for the Roman Catholics.
Meteoroligical Centre :
A Meteorological Centre has started functioning with effect from the 9th October, 1974, in Kesari Nagar by the Indian Meteorological Department. A bulletin on weather and temperature is sent daily to the All India Radio,Cuttack, Sambalpur and Jeypore Centres, for broadcasting. The Centre is publishing daily weather reports for Orissa State and issuing reports regarding adverse weather like heavy rainfall, strong winds and storms. It is also issuing reports on weather for the sea ports and the fishermen of the coastal districts. The Centre is giving information on weather required by the air port authorities at Bhubaneswar. The Centre is under the charge of a Meteorologist.CHANDAPUR
Chandapur is situated in 85 degree 19'30"E. and 19 degree 56'N. on the National Highway No.5 at a distance of 35 Km. from Khurda. From this place a branch road leads to Ranpur. The only importance of this is the T.B. sanatorium called 'Basanta Manjari Swasthya Nivas'. The sanatorium is named after Basanta Manjari Debi, the late dowager queen of Ranpur ex-State who for some time served as a Deputy Minister in erstwhile Orissa Cabinet.CHILKA LAKE
The Chilka is a shallow sheet of water covering in autumn an area of 450 sq.miles on the east coast of Orissa. It shrinks to about 300 sq.miles in summer. It is separated from the Bay of Bengal by a group of islands formed by silt deposits and by a long strip of land, which for miles consists of nothing but a sandy ridge. Hemmed in between the mountains and the sea, the Chilka spreads itself out into a pear-shaped expanse of water, having its wider end towards the north-east and the conical end towards the south. The scenery of the Chilka is varied, and in parts exceedingly picturesque. In the south and west hill ranges bound its shores; and in this part it is dotted with a number of small rocky islands rising from deep water. At Barakul, about 6 km.away from Balugaon railway station, there is a good and comfortable Inspection Bungalow of the Public Works Department overlooking the Chilka lake.DHAULI
Dhauli is a village situated in 85 degree 51'E and 20 degree 11'N, on the south bank of river Daya. Close to the village are two short ranges of low hills running parallel to each other and only a few hundred feet apart. They are collectively known as Dhauli hills. On the north face of the southern range, the rock, which is called Asvatthama, has been hewn and polished for a space of 4.572 metres (fifteen feet) long by 3.048 metres(ten feet) in height; and here the famous rock edicts of Asoka are inscribed. Several letters have been lost or damaged because of weather action since Lieutenant Markham Kittoe first brought the inscription to the notice of the Europeans in 1838. A shade in stone has been put up over the inscription in order that it may be preserved from further damage.
Immediately above the inscription is a terrace, on the right side of which is the forepart of an elephant 1.2192 metres (four feet) high, hewn out of the solid rock and carved with some skill. If of the same age as the inscription, and there is no reason to think that it is not, this is one of the oldest carvings in India. A small narrow groove runs round the three sides of the terrace, leaving a space of three feet immediately in front of the elephant, and two other grooves may be noticed on either side of the elephant on the floor and along the perpendicular face of the rock. These grooves were probably intended to support a wooden canopy. Originally, designed as an emblem of Gautama Buddha, the elephant has become an object of popular worship. At the time of Kittoe's visit (1838) it did not receive regular but one in a year the Brahmins of the temple in the vicinity came to throw water on it and to besmear it with red lead in honour of Ganesha. The elephant has evidently given the hillock its name Asvatthama, meaning the famous elephant of the Mahabharata.
"The northern ridge culminates in a temple-crowned peak, and at its western extremety are a number of caves natural and artificial. To the east of this temple, and at a lower level, is a natural fissure full of bats; and one boulder at the top, near the entrance, is a cut a small inscription in three lines". Lower down on the south slope of the hill is an artificially cut cave, close to which are several other caves begun but left unfinished, and a large fissure or hallow in the rock. Lower down, between the western extremities of the two ridges, is a small plainly built temple of laterite dedicated to Siva (Vairangeswar). The temple on the top of the northern ridge referred to above had collapsed, the broken walls standing only a few metres high overgrown with moss and shrubs.
In 1972, this old Siva temple was reconstructed at a cost of Rs.123200/- by the Rural Development Department, Government of Orissa. The ruins of the old temple were completely removed thereby destroying any chance of research indicated by O'malley. It is known as Dhabaleswar (Siva) temple.
The present temple consists of a vimana and a Jagamohana. The inner walls of the sanctum and the Jagamohana are decorated with marble stones.
East of the hills is a large tank named Kausalyaganga. The tank is said to have been originally a kos(4.02 km.) long on each side. A great part of it is now silted up and under cultiavation. The Fishery Department of the Government of Orissa have a pisciculture centre here.
The most important of the remains at Dhauli, however, are the edicts of Asoka. Discovered by Lieut.Kittoe, who took a careful copy of them, they were first deciphered by James Prinsep in 1838.
The rock is hewn and polished on the northern side for a space of 15' long and 10' wide where the edicts of Asoka have been deeply cut. But here we do not get the full set of 14 edicts of Asoka as in case of other rock edicts of the Emperor in different parts of India. In the Dhauli version, Edicts No.11, 12 and 13 are lacking and two special edicts have been added to it. These special edicts are generally called Separate Rock Edicts I and II.
The inscription are written in the Prakit language using Brahmi script. The time when all these edicts were issued or inscribed is not stated in clear terms. According to a Pillar Edict of Asoka he began issuing edicts twelve years after his corononation (269 B.C.). Rock Edict VIII refers to his eleventh regnal year in relation to a certain earlier event in his career. Rock Edicts III and IV were issued in the thirteenth year and Rock Edict V in the fourteenth year of Asoka's reign. All these rock edicts were incised here, all at one time, sometime after the fourteenth regnal year (256 B.C.). The special edicts, as revealed from their "position and script, were added later on; probably the two were incised by different scribes at different times.
The edicts were meant for the general public and for the king's officers, and therefore, must have been inscribed close to a big town on or near the public highway. The town was presumably Tosali, for the officers in charge of which the special edicts are addressed. Tosali must atleast have been a large town and the capital of the region, for a Kumara or prince was in charge of it.
The Dhauli hillock continued to be a place of importance as is attested by the fact that in 699 A.D. Bhatta Loyomaka and physician Bhinata, the residents of Viraja (Jajpur) built a monastery here. An inscription in an artificial cave, not far from the Asokan inscription, records the erection of a monastery of which no trace can, however, be found at present. The presence of some old temples here, which still serve as the living shrines, show that the place was always regarded as of importance. These are declared as the protected monuments by the Government of India.
Peace Pagoada alias Shanti Stupa :
During the inauguration ceremony of the Shanti Stupa at Rajgir in Bihar a suggestion was made that a Peace Pagoda (Shanti Stupa) should be constructed on Dhauligiri where emperor Asoka after the bloody Kalinga war renounced the cult of violence and took to the path of no-violence preached by Lord Buddha. So Most Ven. Fujii Guruji, Founder-President of Japan Buddha Sangha, decided to take up the matter with the then Chief Minister of Orissa and visited Bhubaneswar on the 8th January, 1970. It was decided that the Shanti Stupa will be constructed under guidance of Gurujii Fuji with financial assistance from his followers and devotees both in Japan and India and that land for the same on Dhauli would be provided by the Government of Orissa and that provision of road, electricity and water should be made by the State Government. The Japanese volunteer headed by Guruji Fujii reached Dhauligiri on the 15th November, 1970. They lived in improvised bamboo sheds. A board of management known as the Kalinga Nippon-Buddha Sangha was constituted with Most Ven. Nicuidatsu Fujii as its patron.
The entire project has been conceived in three phases. The first phase has been completed which includes the construction of the Peace Pagoda and Saddharma Vihar (Buddhist temple) at an estimated cost of fifteen lakhs of rupees. The second phase has also been completed which consists of a garden, a lake and ancillary establishments costing about five lakhs of rupees. The third phase has not yet been started which includes the establishment of a University.
The ceremony of Bhumi Puja and lying of foundation stone was held on the 25th of January, 1971 at a function presided over by the then Governor of Orissa. Construction of the Saddharma Vihar commenced on the same day and was completed on the 6th August, 1971.
The construction work of Shanti Stupa (Peace Pagoda) was started on the 25th August, 1971 under the leadership of Reverend Shanti Shugei and a band of devoted Japanese Bhikshus and Bhikshunis. The design of the Stupa and other projects were prepared by the Japanese architects and engineers who came from Japan for the purpose.
This Kalinga Peace Pagoda is said to be the thirty-second in the series of Shanti Stupas constructed by the Guruji Fujii in different countries.HIRAPUR
The village Hirapur, situated in Balianta police station, is about 10 km. to the east of the temple city Bhubaneswar. It is not far from the south bank of river Bhargavi. The place is famous for the hypaethral temple of sixty-four yoginis dated to the 9th century A.D. It is a protected monument under the Ancient Monument Preservation Act. Of such temples there are only four in India, and it is of great importance that the the state of Orissa possesses two such temples entirely devoted to the sixty-four mysterious godlings called yoginis. The other yogini temple of Orissa is at Ranipur-Jharial in Balangir district. The temple at Hirapur is a circular enclosure with a narrow doorway to the east. The height of the enclosure from the level of the ground around the outer surface of the monument varies by 2.43 metres (8 feet) to 2.74 metres (9 feet). The height of the enclosure from the level of the ground around the outer surface of the monument varies by 2.43 metres (8 feet) to 2.74 metres (9 feet). The diametre of the circular space inside is nearly 7.62 metres (2.5 feet) and the height of the wall on the inside paved floor is 1.87 metres (6 feet 2 inches), varying by a few centimetres here and there. The round wall is built of a coarse kind of sandstone which is generally found in the neighbouring areas, whereas its foundation has been constructed with blocks of laterite like many ancient temples of Bhubaneswar. The inner wall of the circular enclosure contains sixty sculptured panels of the Yoginis were each enshrined in a niche. The images of the other four Yoginis were perhaps enshrined in the pillared Mandapa, the remains of which can still be seen at the centre of the shrine. The miniature size of the shrine, its compact design, admirable proportion and close-grained stone sculpture neatly arranged in small niches make it a fascilnating monument. All the Yogini images are carved in black chlorite and are in standing posture. Most of these relievo figures are beatiful, seductive, full of charm and in exquisite variety of poses. On the outer surface of the circular enclosure there are nine beautiful sculptured female figures set in nine niches. These nine panels are larger in size than the panels of the sixty-four Yoginis within the temple.
In the middle of the enclosed space, there is a small shrine which has been repaired a few years back with modern arches. Near the shrine there are some pillars and blocks of sandstone that were used in it before its fall. Probably an image of Siva was the original icon of this covered structure, but no image is to be found there now.
The Yoginis are attendants on Durga, and in a sense, are considered to be various forms of the goddess herself. According to scholars the temple of sixty-four Yoginis at Hirapur was a centre of Brahmanical Tantric religion in 8th-9th century A.D. when this cult was predominant in Orissa.JATNI
Jatni is a town and railway junction situated in 85 degree 42'30''E. and 20 degree 9'N. in the Bhubaneswar subdivision. It is 12.8 km. from Khurda on the Khurda-Pipli road and is the headquarters of Khurda Road Division of the Southern Eastern Railway. The railway colony is a planned township containing residences of the railway staff which extends on both sides of the railway line. With the ex-State areas of Nayagarh, Ranpur and Daspalla as its hinterland, Jatni has prospored as an important trade and business centre. The civic affairs of the town is looked after by the Jatni Municipality.KAIPADAR
Kaipadar is a village situated in 85 degree 33'E. and 20 degree 8'N. in Khurda district. It is 11 km. to the south-west of Khurda. The place is well known for the tomb of Bokhari Saheb. Bokhari Saheb was a 18th century Muslim saint and according to local tradition was a close friend of a Hindu hermit both of whom preached their respective religious beliefs with a spirit of synthesis and harmony. Pilgrims, both Hindus and Muslims, visit the tomb to obtain fulfilment of their wishes. Formerly they used to leave a piece of paper in which their desire were written. The paper was kept hanging on a wire along with hundreds of such petitions. As the children were tearing off the petitions now the priests tie the petitions round a pillar. It is a popular belief that the desires of the petitioners are fulfilled. Offerings of sweetmeats are generally made. On every Thursday a big fair is held here and a number of pilgrims congregate to get the blessings of Bokhari Saheb. On the 25th October of every year the birthday of Bokhari Saheb is celebrated here. Adjacent to the shrine, there is a mosque. The place is connected with Khurda by bus route. There is one Dharmasala called 'Osmania Sarai' where the pilgrims may take shelter.KENDULI
The village Kenduli is situated on the Prachi river in Balianta police station of Bhubaneswar Tahasil. It was originally a sasan or Brahmin settlement. Even at present a part of this area is known as Kenduli Sasan, the other part being Kendulipatna, while the area containing the old reliccs of temples and images is known as Kenduli Deuli. The village has a long standing tradition of being the birth place of poet Jayadeva of 'Gita Govinda' fame. The area has extensive relics of brick temples and sculptures of Saiva, Vaishnava and Sakta cults some of which may be ascribed to the 10th-11th century A.D. Among the notable images mention may be made of Bhairava, Madhava, Ambika and another goddess called by the people Jageswari. A two-armed image (both the arms broken) with heavy matted hair is worshipped by the local people as the sage 'Jayadeva'. On the southern side of the village there is a temple dedicated to god Lakshmi-Nrusimha and the image of Nrusimha carrying Lakshmi on his lap reveals the iconographic peculiarities of the Ganga period.
A cultural organisation called the Jayadeva Sanskrutika Parishad was started here in 1966 for which land was purchased and building constructed at governemnt cost. A small museum containing old images and other archaeological finds unearthed from the nearby area is housed in the Parishad building. Every year a cultural function in honour of the poet Jayadeva is organised at Kenduli by this cultural organisation.KHANDAGIRI
Khandagiri is a small hill range situated in 20 degree 16'N. and 85 degree 47'E. close to the new township of Bhubaneswar. One may arrive at the very foot of the hill by a pucca road from Bhubaneswar. The National Highway No.5 passes very near the hill range. The hill range rises abruptly and stretches in a long curve, from noth-east to south-west. From the foot it is seen to be divided into three distinct peaks called Udayagiri, Khandagiri, and Nilagiri. Because of its eastern portion the name Udayagiri was given to it but in ancient times it was called Kumari Parbata (Kumari hill). Khandagiri was known as Kumar Parbata (Kumar hill) i.e. the hill of Kumar, the son of Siva. Kumar is also known as Skanda and hence the name Skandaparbata or Skandagiri which later corrupted itself to Khandagiri. The crest of Khandagiri on which is perched a Jain temple is 37.4904 m.(123 ft.) high. the highest crest of Udayagiri is 33.528 m.(120 ft.) and Nilgiri is still less (measurements are from the Vaishnav Matha at the foot of Udayagiri hill). The Vaishnav Matha is also called as "Paduka Pratisthan". There are a number of wooden sandals believed to be the sandals of saints who lived in Khandagiri. An old Kaupinidhari Babaji (a religious mendicant wearing a langoot) is residing here. The Matha has its humble existence, besides a Jain Dharmasala, constructed sometime after 1929. At the base of Khandagiri there is a government inspection bungalow, and a Youth Hostel. A mela is held at Khandagiri on the Magha Saptami day which lasts up to the full-moon day.
A brief account of the Khandagiri and Udayagiri caves is given below :
These hills are honey-combed with caves, of which forty-four are in Udayagiri, nineteen in Khandagiri and three in Nilgiri. Unlike the rock-hewn monuments in western India, which were the handiworks of Buddhists, these Orissan caves were both excavated, and for many years tenanted, by adherents of the Jain religion, who have left behind them unmistakable evidence of their faith, both in the early inscribed records and in the mediaeval cult statues, which are found in several of the caves. To this sectarian difference are due many distinctive features of the architecture, including among others the entire absence of Chaitya halls, for which apparently there was no need in the ceremonial observances of the Jains.
In Udayagiri a foot-path running from the north-east and to the gap divides the caves into two groups, one higher, the other lower. The higher group is roughly divisible into three sub-groups, the eastern-most, the central, and below the central, the south-western. The lower group begins opposite the Hatigumpha or elephant cave, and running down in a semi-circle, ends in the Ranihansapura cave. In Khandagiri all the caves, except two, lie among the foot track, Tatwa No.II being a few feet below Tatwa No.I, and the Ananta on a higher ledge, above which is the crest crowned by a Jain temple.
Queen's Palace : The Ranihansapura or Raninabara cave i.e. the Queen's palace (also called Ranigumpha) is the biggest and the most richly carved. It comprises two ranges of rooms on the three sides of a quadrangle, leaving the south-east side open. In the lower range are (1) a main wing with three rooms facing south-east, and one room facing south-west, (2) a left wing with three rooms on each side, except the south-west and (3) a right wing with one room facing south-west. The upper range of rooms is placed not immediately over the lower rooms, but over the rocky mass behind and contains (1) a main wing with four rooms, (2) a left wing with one room facing a covered verandah and (3) a right wing with one room. The rooms have long verandahs in front presenting three special features. The first is that at each end there is the figure of a guard carved in high relief. The second peculiar feature of the verandah is that it has low stone benches, as in the old caves of western India. The third is that the verandah roof was supported on pillars, all of a very archaic type.
Access to the rooms is obtained through oblong doorways, of which there are one to three, according to the size of the room. The rooms are 1.143 m.(three feet nine inches) to 2.1336 m.(seven feet) high, and vary in length from 3.3528 m. (eleven feet) to 6.096 m.(twenty feet); only one has a window. They are plain inside with flat ceilings and the floor is curved at the inner end in a shape of pillows, evidently for the monk's beds.
From the road near the matha a flight of steps lead to the Jayabijay cave, between which and the Queen's palace lie (1) two small cells with verandahs, called Bajadara or the musician's cave; (2) a cave with an elephant frieze (Chhota-hati); (3) the Alakapuri cave, or Kubera's palace; and (4) a small cave. the Chhota-hati cave consists of one room with a doorway and a frieze, on which are carved two elephants, the trunked head of a third, and a tree. Alakapuri also called Swargapuri-a two-storied cave with two rooms below and a large room above all with finely arched ceilings and verandahs having benches and shelves.
Jayabijay : The Jayabijay has two rooms with a verandah and terrace. The verandah has a male guard on the left and a female on the right. Over the two doorways is a frieze in three compartments. Over this cave is another open cave.
Panasa and Patalapuri : In the semicircle between Jayabijaya and Manchapuri are found two open caves called Thakurani, besides the Panasa cave and Patalapuri. The Panasa or jack-fruit cave is a room with a verandah having bas-reliefs of animals at the top of its pilasters and a small cave over it. In Patalpuri or the hell-house cave, a benched verandah leads to two side rooms and two back rooms, now made into one by the fall of the partition wall. The next two caves end the semicircle of the lower range. They are important, as they have inscriptions connecting them with the elephant cave on the other side of the foot track. One is called Manchapuri and the other Swargapuri or Vaikunthapuri.
Manchapuri : The Manchapuri, or house of earth, has a courtyard with first a room with a verandah on the right, and then a verandah leading to a side room and two back rooms. The verandahs of the main wing and of the right wing each have figures of two guards, one at either end and all buried up to the knee. The main wing verandah has its roof front carved; the carvings, now nearly obliterated, indicate faintly a five-barred railing with a procession of an elephant and other figures below it. The main wing rooms have five doorways (including the one in the side room), with side pilasters and arches carved with animals, fruits and flowers. The arches are joined by railings, over which are bas-reliefs in five compartments. The fourth has an inscription of one line over the railing, and in the seventh compartment is another inscription.
Swargapuri : On the rock behind Manchapuri rises Swargapuri, the house of heaven. It consists of a verandah, a long back room and a side room on the right. The verandah has a low bench, but has lost the greater part of its roof. The back room has three doorways, and an inscription in three lines, which speaks of the cave having been made for Kalinga monks, as a gift to the arhatha.
Ganesh Cave : The higher ledge begins at the extreme east with a pool called Lalita-kunda and three open caves. Then follows the Ganesh cave, so called apparently from a carving of that god on the inner wall. It consists of two rooms with a verandah leading to them; but the verandah appears to have been filled up with earth and stones, and it is now reached from the courtyard by a flight of four steps flanked on each side by an elephant holding lotus plants over a full-blown lotus.
Dhanaghara and Hatigumpha : The cental group begins on the east with the Dhanaghara cave, and ends with the Baghagumpha and Jambeswara cave, thus going round the crest of hill. The top of the hill has been levelled, and the edge of the level portion set with laterite blocks in the centre is a stone pavement, the remains probably of a small temple. Below the crest on the east side is an open cave, and further down the Dhanaghara (house of rice) cave. The latter is a room 4.2672 metres (fourteen feet) long, with three doorways facing east. The verandah is benched and partly filled up with earth, but is still 1.6764 metres (five and a half feet) high. On the left pilaster supporting its roof is a guard buried up to the knees, with an elephant at the top.
Turning round, one comes, beyond, a small cell with an open cave above it, to Hatigumpha or the elephant cave, a large open cave of irregular size, which may originally have consisted of four rooms, and probably had a verandah in front. Inside, the cave is, at its widest and logest, 17.3736 metres (fifty-seven feet) by nearly 8.5344 metres (twenty-eight feet) while the cave mouth is nearly 3.6576 metres (twelve feet) high. Some words are cut on the walls, apparently the names of monks or visitors. The roof rock has been scraped away in front for the incision of an inscription, in seventeen lines, measuring 4.2672 metres (fourteen feet) by 1.8288 metres (six feet). This is the celebrated inscription of emperor Kharavela. It is now protected by a shade on stone pillars, in order to prevent further damage, the inscription on the soft gritty stone having suffered from the climate and lost many of its letters. The inscription is flanked at the beginning by a trisula and an hour glass; at the end is a monogram in a railing, and on the left of the fourth line a swastika, all auspicious symbols. According to the reading of Pandit Bhagawanlal Indraji, the inscription purports to give the biography of Kharavela, king of Kalinga, up to the thirteenth year of his reign and is dated in the 165th year of the Mauryan era i.e. some year between 158 and 153 B.C. While the existence of a definite date in the record is denied by other eminent scholars, the general consensus of opinion seems to assign the epigraph to the middle of the second century B.C.
Sarpagumpha and Baghagumpha : To the west of the elephant cave are eight caves at varying heights, five directly under the hill crest, two in a side boulder (to the west), and one just opposite the snake cave. The Sarpagumpha or Snake cave is on the other side of the footpath, facing east. Its verandah top is carved so as to resemble the head of a serpent with three hoods, the symbol of Parsvanath. The cell is small, and is only 0.9144 metre (three feet) high. There are two inscriptions, with several letters gone, of which the meaning cannot definitely be stated, one on the doorway and the other on the left jamb. On the left side of the same boulder is another cell without a verandah, and a little further down is an open cave in another boulder, now blocked by jungle. To the north-west of the snake cave is the Baghagumpha or tiger cave, so called from its front being shaped into the eyes and snout of a tiger, with the outer opening representing its distended mouth and the cell door its gullet. The cell is three and a half feet high, and over the doorway is an inscription in two line, calling it the cave of Sabhuti of Ugara Akhada. Further to the left of the same boulder is another cell, and above it a third cell and two open caves, more or less broken facing south.
Jambeswara, Haridasa, Jagannath and Rasui : On the same level with the tiger cave and at the extreme end, is the cave called Jambeswara, which is 1.1176 m. (three feet eight inches) high and has two plain doorways over one of which is a Brahmi inscription in one line saying that it is the cave of Nakiya of Mohamada and of his wife. From the tiger cave a flight of uneven steps takes one down to a group of three caves, about 15.24 metres (fifty feet) higher than the road on the glen. The eastern cave bears the name Haridasa, and consists of a room, over 6.096 metres (twenty feet) long with three doorways and an inscription speaking of the cave as a gift of Kshudrakarma of Kothajaya. The Jagannath cave, so called from a rude drawing of that god on the inner wall, has one long room with three simple doorways and a verandah. By its side is a smaller cave called the Rasui or cook-room cave, with one simple doorway, the roof projecting slightly so as to form as pillarless verandah.
Khandagiri Caves :
Tatwa and Tentuli : In the Khandagiri hill the caves begin from the north with Tatwa I, so called from the tatwa bird carved at the top corner of the tympanum arch. The cell is 4.8768 metres to 5.4864 metres (sixteen to eighteen feet) long and nearly 1.8288 metres (six feet) high, and is entered by three doorways with side pilasters, carved tympanum and carved arches. On the wall is written in red ink an inscription in one line, and below it another inscription in five lines. On 1.8288 metres (six feet) below there is another cave marked similarly with tatwa birds and, therefore, called Tatwa II.
To the west of Tatwa I is an open cave facing north-east, and beyond it, to the south-west, is a cave Tentuli or the tamarind cave. The cell has two doorways with a verandah in front. The right hand doorway is blocked with stones, so as to convert it into a window-like opening.
Khandagiri and Shell caves : To the south-east of this is a double-storeyed cave, called Khandagiri or the broken hill from a crack in its two storeys. This cave is the first to be reached by the flight of steps from the public road. The room on the lower-storey is 1.8288 m. (six feet) high, and the upper room nearly 1.524 m. (five feet) high. Besides these, there is a small broken cave in the lower and a small room in the upper-storey with a small window and a figure of the good Patitapaban on the back wall. To its south is the cave called Dhanagarh (the rice fort) or the shell cave on account of certain characters found in it. Originally a room with a verandah it has been converted into an open cave by the fall of the partition wall, a fragment of which is left on the right side. On the left side wall of the verandah are seven letters in shell-shaped characters not yet deciphered, but supposed to date back to the seventh to ninth century A.D.
Nabamuni, Barabhuji and Trisula : Further south are three caves called respectively the cave of the nine saints, the twelve-handed cave and the Trisula cave, from the images carved on their walls.
The Nabamuni or cave of the nine saints consisted of two rooms with a common verandah, but the front walls and the partition wall have fallen down. On the architrave inside is an inscription of about the tenth century A.D., which speaks of a Jain monk Subhachandra in the eighteenth year of the increasingly victorious regin of Srimad Udyota-Kesharideva. On the broken partition wall is another inscription of the same Subhachandra and a small inscription referring to a female lay disciple. The right hand room contains images in moderate relief of ten Tirthankars, about 0.3048 metre (a foot) high, with their sasandevis or consorts below them. Parsvanath, who is easily recognized by his serpent hoods, is the most honoured, for he is carved twice.
Beyond this cave lies the Barabhuji or tweleve-handed cave, so called from the figure of a female with twelve hands carved on the left wall of the verandah. The latter leads to a long room with three doorways, which are now fallen, the roof being supported by two recent pillars. On the walls are carved in moderate relief seated Tirthankaras or Jain saints with their devis or consorts below them; on the back or west wall is a large standing Parsvanath canopied by a seven-hooded serpent and without any devi. The saints and their wives are shown with their different symbols and are nearly of equal size, 20.32 centimetres or 22.86 centimetres (eight or nine inches) each; but the figure of Parsvanath is nearly 0.9144 metre (three feet) high, from which he would appear to have had special honour.
Adjoining this on the south is the Trisula cave, so called from a rude carving on the verandah wall. The room had three doorways, which are now fallen, the architrave being now supported on two pillars. The room is 6.7056 metres (twenty-two feet) by 2.1336 m. (seven feet), is 2.4384 m. (eight feet) high, and is unique in having the inside benched. Above the benches is carved a series of twenty four Tirthankars including a standing Parsvanath under the seven hoods of a snake, and ending with Mahavira. In this group, too, Parsvanath, is given the position of honour. The general execution of the images in this group is finer than in the adjoining cave.
Lalatendu : Near the government bungalow, is a two-storied cave called after king Lalatendu Keshari. The upper portion consisted of two rooms and a common verandah, all of which have been destroyed, portions of the walls alone still clinging to the rock. Beyond this is a broken cave, and beyond that a pool called Akasa Ganga. The western face of the hill contains three caverns, apparently without any doorway, and adjoining them on the south side is a natural cavern, containing water, called Gupta Ganga.
Ananta : The higher ledge may be climbed by steps out in the rock on the right side of the Khandagiri, or by steeper steps near the Barabhuji cave, or by a track for Tatwa I. The northern portion of this ledge has been levelled and forms the courtyard of the Ananta cave. This is a room about 7.0104 m. (twenty-three feet) long and 1.8288 m. (six feet) high with an arched ceiling.
Jain Temple : The crest of Khandagiri has been levelled so as to form a terrace with stone edges. In the middle of this terrace stands a Jain temple with two side temples. The main temple consists of a sanctuary and porch, built like Orissan porches with pyramidal roofs and ribbed domes. Within the sanctuary is a masonry platform with a small raised wall behind, in which are imbedded five images of Jain saints. Behind the temple on a slightly lower level is another terrace, on which lie scattered scores of votive stupas indicating the existence of an older temple. In the right niche is a standing chlorite image of nude Rishabhanath. The colossal image of Parsvanath in black marble, which is enshrined in the marble hall near the entrance, is modern, being installed in 1950.Nilgiri :
From the inspection bungalow a track leads to the Nilgiri peak, which lies to the south-west of Khandagiri and is separated from it by a gap covered with jungle. Passing by a small pool called Radhakunda, deep in the south-east corner, the track leads, to a small but broken open cave. Going up the hill, the track leads to a roofless mandapa and then turns round to the right to an open cave facing south now converted into two rooms by a partition wall of dressed stones evidently erected recently. Further on, is a spring named Syama Kunda with a masonry cell shaped structure over it, and beyond it on the south side of the hill an open cave facing west, to which flight of steps cut in the rock gives access.KHURDA
Khurda is the headquarters of the district of the same name and is situated in 85 degree 37'30"E and 20 degree 11'N. on the National Highway No.5. The town is 11 km. from Khurda Road railway station, with which it is connected by a metalled road. The local name of the place is Jajarsingh, which originally was a small village. Probabaly the place was also formerly known as Kurada, which means 'foul mouthed'. The old mile stones of the area had the word 'KURADA' dug into them which have now been whitewashed and the word 'KHURDA' written on them. The present Khurda area was once heavily populated by the Savaras who are still to be found in the subdivision in large numbers. In this connection it may be noted that a village and ex-Zamindari in Ganjam distrct is named 'Surada' which probably means 'fair mouthed' as opposed to 'Kurada'. Khurda came into prominence when the first king of Bhoi dynasty, Ramachandra Deva, made it the capital of his kingdom during the last part of the 16th century A.D. The Bhoi kings lived in a part of the foot of the Barunai Hill, about 1.6 km. to the south of the town. This site was apparently selected because it was protected on one side by the Barunai Hill, which was easily defended, and on the other by dense jungle. The fort is now completely ruins, only a few traces remaining here and there which reminds one for its former glory. Khurda suffered repeated onslaughts from Muslim and Maratha cavalry but its royal house retained much of its independence till 1804 when the then Raja, Mukunda Deva under the guidance of Jayakrushna Raiguru, rebelled against the British domination and was dispossessed of his territory. Khurda is also memorable as the centre of activity of the Paik Rebellion of 1817-18 under the leadership of Bakshi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar.
Khurda is an important centre of handloom industry. The lungi, napkin and sarees produced here have an all Orissa market. There are a few Hindu mathas in Garh Khurda i.e. the old fort area of the town. The civic affairs of the town are managed by a Notified Area Council.NANDANKANAN
Nandankanan, named after the heavenly pleasure garden of the gods, is a beautiful Biological Park situated in the most natural surroundings of the green forests of Chandaka. It is under the jurisdiction of the Chandaka police station in Khurda district. It was inauguarated on the 29th December, 1960. Previous to that it had been selected by a committee to be a Botanical Garden and an extension of the lake was being used for pisciculture. It is connected with Bhubaneswar by road via Chandaka (30 km) and via Patia (20 km). There is a fair-weather road (30 km) to this place from Cuttack via Balikuda. The Barang railway station on the South Eastern Railway is only 2 km. from the Biological Park and is connected by a motorable road. The park has been declared as a sanctuary since August 1979.
The park area covers 500 hectares out of which the lake, which is a main attraction, occupies about 50 hectares and the rest are open forest. The Botanical Garden, to the north of the lake, covers nearly 100 hectares. The main advantage of Nandankanan over most of its kind in the country is its natural setting in forest, and the central lake with its out-flanking swamps and marshes which attract a large number of migratory birds during winter. Because of its closeness to the forest, many wild animals and birds also move about in the park area. Elephants are frequent visitors. the story of the tigress called Kanan is interesting. Kanan was roaming free in the forest. She used to visit Nandankanan every night in the hope of meeting Pradeep, one of the big tigers in the zoo. On the 5th January, 1967 at night she jumped over the fencing and fell into a ditch full of water inside the tiger enclosure. The tiger inside that open-door cage rushed out and attacked Kanan. They fought bitterly until both lay exhausted. The keepers of the zoo finding them with many bleeding wounds sprayed them with dettol, but they ran away from the spray in different directions. Next day both of them came back to be sprayed again. A few days of this treatment cured their wound. But they never made friends. The tiger continued to sleep in his cage while Kanan roamed about in the bushes inside the enclosure. Even after nine years they could not be friends. While other animals can be tamed enough to respond to their names being called and come near either to be patted or fed, Kanan's response is merely a growl.
There are nearly a thousand animals and birds of about 70 varieties in the park, kept mostly in natural surroundings. These animals and birds include Sambar, spotted deer, barking deer, tiger, Indian lion, African lion, white lion, black panther, clouded leopard, golden cat, leopard cat, sloth bear, crab eating mongoose, pangolin, porcupine, elephant, bison, macaque, binturong, red-necked wallaby, Malayan sun bear, black buck, four-horned antelope, kangaroo, Nilgai, Ladhaki goat, chimpanzee, etc., and birds such as parakeet, pelican, peafowl, budgerigar, black swan, hornbill, hill myna, stork, white-eyed buzzard, zebra finch, eagle, cockatoo, kite, owl, shikra, eguyptian vulture, Nicober pigeon, peacock, etc. There are also 11 varieties of reptiles in the zoo which include gharial, reticulated phthon, king cobra, minotors, turtles, mugger crocodiles,etc. A lion safari and an elephant safari are there covering extensive areas of forest land. There is a rope-way between the Botanical park and Zoological park.
The Biological Park with its shady trees, green lawns and flower beds turns into a veritable pleasure garden of gods (Nandan Kanan) in spring and winter months. The lake provides boating facility to the visitors. One can also enjoy a joy ride on elephant on payment. For the pleasure and pastime of children a Children's train is being run in Nandankanan since August 1971. The Botanical Garden on the northern side of the lake provides beautiful picnic spots. A road runs along the periphery of the lake and there are also several link roads and paths criss-crossing the park have been developed including one Children's park with the provision of children's tot-lots, merrygo-rounds, swings, etc. In the natural setting beautiful rest sheds have been constructed for the visitors. Visitors desirous of spending a day in the park and observing wild life can stay in the Forest Department's rest house, or in the tourist lodges on payment of moderate charges. For catering to the needs of the visitors there are soft drinks, tea-stalls, packed food-stuff and restaurant. First Aid medical help is available in the park dispensary. Telephones, postal and medical facilities are available at Barang. The Forest Department has also a museum at Nandankanan in which varieties of forest products and stuffed specimens of animals and birds are preserved.
A large number of visitors visit Nandankanan everyday, their number increasing on holidays and during the winter months.NARANGARH
Narangarh is a village near Tapang railway station in Khurda police station. It is known for the Tapang Light Foundry where castiron sleepers, bearing plates, pipes, etc. are manufactured and exported to different places. There is an ancient cave on the top of a small hill. The cave faces to the east. It is about 7 feet wide at the base of the front side. The height of the ceiling is about 3 feet. The cave contains six inscriptions of different periods ranging from about the 1st century A.D. to the 16th century A.D. The polish and smoothness of the floor of the caves at Khandagiri and Udayagiri hill near Bhubaneswar are absent here. There are no sculptures on the walls except a few crudely designed figures which are damaged by the vagaries of time. On the floor of the cave some crude designs including two footprints have been carved. The cave seems to have been a centre of religious activities for many centuries.SISUPAL
Sisupal is a small village in Bhubaneswar Tahasil, situated at a distance of 2.5 km. to the south-east of Bhubaneswar. The place is famous for being the site of a ruined fort which was excavated by the Department of Archaeology, Government of India, in 1948. The fort, popularly known as Sisupalgarh, probably represents the ancient Kalinganagar which was the capital of Kalinga under Emperor Kharavela of the middle of 1st century B.C. Excavation at the site revealed the culture sequence and chronology of the site, the nature of formation of the defences and the plan of the gateways. It also revealed many intersting features including various types of pottery, terracotta earonaments, iron implements of peace and war, glass bangles, terracotta bullae, beads (of carnelian, onyx, agate, chalcedony, amethyst, glass, terracota and copper), sealing coins, coin-moulds, pendants and an ivory spacing bead with elaborate carvings showing on one side a lotus flanked by a couple of swans and on the other three lotuses. The iron implements include caltrops, a four pronged instruement, which the Romans used to stop the advance of cavalry. It shows contact with Rome in about 400 B.C. Either travellers from Sisupal brought it from Rome or Romans brought it to Sisupal.