REVENUE ADMINISTRATION IN KHORDA DISTRICT
            
   1.  Introduction :
    
    The district of Khurda come in to effect from 1st April, 1993
    having been carved out of the earst while Puri district.  The
    district  is  having  2 administrative  Sub-divisions  namely
    Khurda  &  Bhubaneswar, 10 Blocks, 7 Tahasils, 5  U.L.Bs,  23
    Police  Stations,  152  Grama  Panchayats  and  1567  revenue
    villages.
    The  district  is situated approximately 19 degree 40' to  20
    degree  25' of North Latitude and between 24 degree 55' to 36
    degree  5' of East longitude.  The district is sorrounded  by
    Cuttack  district in North and North-East, Nayagarh  district
    in  West,  Puri district in South and by Ganjam  district  in
    South-West.   The Chilika lake is located in the south of the
    district.   As  per 1991 census the total population  of  the
    district is 15,02,014 and the growth rate is 2.4 % per annum.
    According  to  1991 census there are 4.35 lakh main  workers,
    6.00  lakh marginal workers and 10.52 lakh non-workers in the
    district.   So  far SC,ST population is concerned  there  are
    2,01,284 SC and 77,242 ST people residing in the district.
   
    The percentage of literacy is 57.34 %  in the district.
    2. History of Land Revenue Administration:
      
    The  historical  evidences  which have come to light  so  far
    about the Revenue Administration, ancient and mediaval Orissa
    is quite different from the Revenue Administration prevailing
    in the modern Orissa.  Prior to the advent of Afghan & Moghul
    rule,  the  revenue  administration   was  based  on  through
    scrutiny  &  local  knowledge of the  officials  with  proper
    checks  &  balances.   The whole kingdom was  divided  in  to
    certain  broad  divisions called Mandals and each Mandal  was
    sub-divided  in  to vishyas which more or less correspond  to
    modern  districts.   The vishyas are also sub-divided  in  to
    smaller  units  known as Bhoga, Bhakti, Khanda, Panchali  and
    the  smallest  unit  was grama or village.   But  during  the
    period  of  Gangas & Gajapaties the designations  of  revenue
    divisions are changed from Mandal to Dandapat, Vishya to Bisa
    or Bisi.
    In  the year 1568 A.D., the Afghans conquered Orissa but they
    have  no opportunity to establish their rules.  Then came the
    Moghuls.  On Moghul conquest Orissa was broadly divided in to
    two  parts  for  land   revenue  administration.   Gadjat  or
    Killajat  or  Rajwara  remained  under the  hill  chiefs  who
    tendered  submission  and  agreed to pay  an  annual  revenue
    either in cash or kind.  The remaining area were under direct
    administration  of Moghuls which was called as Mogolbandi.  A
    portion  of  it  was assigned as Jagir to High  military  and
    civil  personnel.   The revenue of the Jagir was not paid  to
    public  exchequer but was appropriated by the Jagirdars.  The
    revenue from the Khalsa was paid to the State Exchequer.
    Allivardi Khan practically handed over Orissa to the hands of
    Marhattas  by the Treaty of 1751 A.D.  The river Subarnarekha
    formed  the  boundary between Bengal & Orissa  whose  souther
    frontiers  extended to Malud.  The Marhattas did not make any
    substantial  change in the revenue system of Orissa  existing
    then.   They  divided  the Mughalbandi in to  4  chakalas  or
    divisions  namely Cuttack, Bhadrak, Soro & Balasore and about
    150 praganas.
    The  English  expedition for the conquest started from  South
    from  Ganjam  on  8th  Sept.1803 A.D.  and  from  North  from
    Jaleswar  on 23rd Sept.1803 A.D.  under the commandership  of
    Col.Harcourt.   Puri  fell  to the British on 20th  Sept.   &
    Barabati Fort on 10th October in the same year.
    In  June 1804 the province was divided in to two divisions  -
    Northern  &  Southern  with river Mahanadi  as  the  boundary
    between  them, each under a Collector.  Robert Ker &  Charies
    Greme  were appointed as the Judge, Magistrate & Collector of
    the  Northern  Division  &  Southern  Division  respectively.
    J.Hunter  was  sent  to  Puri as  acting  Collector  of  Lord
    Jagannath.  By Regulation XIII of 1805 the two Divisions were
    amalgamated   and  was  placed   under  the  Collector,  with
    headquarters   at  Puri.   Tahasildars   were  stationed   at
    Balasore,  Jajpur & Khurda and the fourth held charge of Khas
    Mahals.   In  the year 1817 the headquarter was shifted  from
    Puri  to  Cuttack under the petition of Zamidars.   By  Govt.
    Order  in 23rd Oct.1928 the province was divided in to  three
    district  namely Balasore, Cuttack & Jagannath later known as
    Puri.   Messers  R.Rickets,  R.Hunter   &  W.Wilkinson   were
    appointed  as  first  Magistrate  &  Collector  of  Balasore,
    Cuttack  &  Puri  respectively.  The districts  of  Ganjam  &
    Koraput  were  formed  a  part of the  newly  created  Orissa
    province  on  1st April 1936 on being separated  from  Modern
    Presidency  and the district Sambalpur was also created after
    separated from Bihar.
    After  independence  in  1947 the State of  Orissa  has  been
    sub-divided  in  to  13  districts and further  in  the  year
    1993-94  the 13 districts have been sub-divided 30 districts.
    The  present  Khurda  district is a part of  earstwhile  Puri
    district.
    3. History of Settlement
      
    During  the period of Moghul dynasty Raja Todar Mal attempted
    to  survey  &  settlement  of Suba Bengal  between  the  year
    1582-1587.    For  the  purpose  of  settlement  lands   were
    classified  in to 4 classes according to their capability  of
    annual  cultivation.  After measurement, assessment was  made
    on the basis of area, quality of land and average of previous
    10  years  produce.  Raja Todar Mall for the most  part  left
    untouched  the border chieftains from settlement of  revenue.
    Khurda  together  with  the states of  Lambai,  Chaubiskhand,
    Rahang  & Sarai was assigned to Raja Rama Chandra Dev and  to
    the  Temple  of Lord Jagannath.  The Raja of Khurda  received
    the  rank  of  Commander of 3500 and under his  control  were
    placed 31 Zamindars with 129 Killahs.
    The  first settlment under British rule was concluded in  the
    year  1804-1805 followed by a Triennial Settlement from  1805
    to  1808.   Second one year Settlement was also conducted  in
    1808-1809.   The  Settlement  of 1808 produced a  revenue  of
    Rs.14,38,982/- including Khurda & permanently settled estates
    of  Garjat  States.   In  the  year  1817,  the  great  Paika
    Rebellion  broke  out  in Khurda.  It  awakened  the  British
    Government  to  a  positive stand and out  look  towards  the
    landed proprietors as well as the peasantry.  Govt.  realised
    that there was something wrong intrinsically in their revenue
    policy.
    Actual  Settlement  was started in the year 1887 &  ended  in
    1845  by  order of the Governor General and certain  rules  &
    procedures  for settlement was adopted.  The procedures  that
    was  adopted from beginning to the end has been described  by
    Maddox in his book "Final Report on the survey and settlement
    of the Province of Orissa".  The next settlement was taken up
    in  the year 1890 and was concluded in 1900.  It was commonly
    known as Maddox Settlement.
    4. Present Settlment Operation:
     
    As  the  agrarian policy of the British Govt.   and  sporadic
    revisions  of  the tenancy laws failed to keep pace with  the
    changing  time,  the  first & foremost task  of  the  popular
    Government  in 1947 was to reform the existing tenancy  laws,
    to  make  the laws instruments capable of providing  adequate
    safety  &  security to the cultivators, to generate in him  a
    sense  of  belongingness of the land he was  cultivating,  to
    provide subsistence to his family members and to bring him in
    direct  contact  with  the  Government  machinery  after  the
    elimination  of  the  middleman.  The Land Revenue  and  Land
    tenure  Committee  commonly known as "Naba Krushna  Chaudhury
    Committee"  submitted  its report to the Government  in  July
    1949.   The  Committee  recommended   for  the  abolition  of
    Zamindari system as the first phase of land reform measures.
    The  first settlement operation in the independent India  was
    started  in  the year 1954 and all the settlement  procedures
    have been completed in 1962.
    The need for consolidation of holding was felt very seriously
    in  Orissa  in 1970.  In 1970 four officers from State  Govt.
    were  deputed  to U.P.  & Punjab to study the working of  the
    consolidation  scheme  in  these states.  On their  return  a
    separate  organisation  was set up under the control  of  the
    Board  of Revenue with a nucleus staff.  The State Govt.  has
    decided  to  take  up  pre-consolidation  work  in  6  units.
    Accordingly  pre-consolidation  work started in the units  at
    Sonepur,  Baragarh, Angul, Salipur, Pipili & Boudh under  the
    supervison of a Asst.  Consolidation Officer in each unit.
    Consolidation  means  amalgamation and re-distribution  of  a
    parcel  or parcels of land comprised in different holdings of
    a  unit  for  the  purpose of rendering  such  holdings  more
    compact.  It is applicable only in case of Agricultural land.
    The  actual consolidation work has been taken up in the state
    in  some  selected areas since January 1974 till the  end  of
    March  1988.   An  area of about 5.70 lakh  hectres  in  4264
    villages  in the district of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Ganjam,
    Keonjhar,  Dhenkanal,  Sambalpur, Bolangir &  Mayurbhanj  has
    been  completed  under consolidation operation.  The map  and
    record  of right for the rest of the land are deemed to  have
    been  prepared under the Orissa Survey & Settlement Act.1958.
    On the basis of the act the 2nd settlement operation has been
    started in some areas of Khurda district since 1997-98.
   
    5. Official Responsibility :
      
   
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    Sl.        Official        Jurisdiction      Main Function
    No.     Responsible

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  1.Collector Throughout     1) Supervision of land revenue &
                         the District       collection Throughout the district
                                         2) Revised Revenue case disposal of
                                            ADM, SDM, Tahasildars under
                                            different revenue Acts/Rule
                                         3) District Law & order
                                            administration through police & magistrate.
                                         4) Original jurisdiction as
                                            Certificate Officer for
                                            certificate dues above Rs.25 lakhs.
                                        5) Revisional Authority in
                                           Misc. Certificate Cases /
                                           money lending cases /OGLS act.
                                        6) Appellate authority in OPDR act/OLR act.
                                        7) Approval & sanction of 
                                           developmental schemes under DRDA,DUDA etc.                                   
                                        8) Heads Dist. Level committies of Banks                                           
                                           Education,Health, Agricultural strateg   
                                        9) As the main functionary of relief and                                    
                                           rehabilitation during natural calamity.
                                       10) Has statuatry functions under several enactments 
                                           like CrPC, Arms Act, NS Act, E.C. Act, Excise Act
                                           MV Act, Orissa Forest Act.
                                       11) As the head of Excise administration.
                                       12) Head of Regional Transport Authority
                                           which regulates vechicle registration etc.
                                       13) Sypervise Social Assistance Schemes under State 
                                           & Central Govt.  
    2. Addl.District  Throughout   1) Supervision of land revenue
       Magistrate,    the Khurda      collection.
       Khurda         Sub-divn.    2) Supervision of disposal of
                                      revenue cases.
                                   3) Sub-Collectors/Tahasildars
                                     appellate authority in OPDR/
                                      OLR regulation-2 of 1956
                                      Act.
                                   4) Revisional authority of 
                                      OPLE/OPDR/OGLS Act etc.
                                   5) Original jurisdiction in
                                      certificate cases above
                                      lakh to less than 25 lakhs.
3.  Addl.District   Throughout                As above
    Magistrate,     Bhubaneswar
    Bhubaneswar     Sub-divn.
4.  Sub-Collector,  Throughout     1) Original jurisdiction as
    Khurda          Khurda            Certificate Officers where
                    Sub-divn.         certificate dues in above
                                      two lakhs.
                                   2) Revenue Officer u/s 22 &
                                      23 of OLR Act.
5.  Sub-Collector,  Throughout             As above.
    Bhubaneswar     Bhubaneswar
                    Sub-divn.
6.  Tahasildar,     Bhubaneswar    1) Collection of land revenue,
    Bhubaneswar     Tahasil           royalty, water rent etc. &
                                      disposal of all types of
                                      revenue cases as below.
                                   2) Original Jurisdiction in
                                      mutation / OPLE / Misc.
                                      Certificate cases.
                                   3) As Certificate Officer for
                                      recovery of arrear land
                                      revenue and public demand.
                                   4) As authorised officer for
                                      collection of premium money
                                      for conversion of land from
                                      agrilculture to non -
                                      agriculture. Use u/s 8(A)
                                      of OLR Act.
                                   5) Assessment of ayacut area
                                      to water rate.
                                   6) Any other work assigned to
                                      him by Collector or
                                      Sub-Collector.
7.  Tahasildar,  Khurda                   As above.
    Khurda       Tahasil
8.  Tahasildar,  Banpur                   As above.
    Banpur       Tahasil

9.  Tahasildar,  Jatni                    As above
    Jatni        Tahasil
10. Tahasildar,  Begunia                  As above
    Begunia      Tahasil 
11  Tahasildar,  Bolagarh                 As above   
     Bolagarh    Tahasil 
12   Tahasildar, Tangi                    As above
    Tangi   Tahasil