REVENUE ADMINISTRATION IN KHORDA DISTRICT
1. Introduction :
The district of Khurda come in to effect from 1st April, 1993
having been carved out of the earst while Puri district. The
district is having 2 administrative Sub-divisions namely
Khurda & Bhubaneswar, 10 Blocks, 7 Tahasils, 5 U.L.Bs, 23
Police Stations, 152 Grama Panchayats and 1567 revenue
The district is situated approximately 19 degree 40' to 20
degree 25' of North Latitude and between 24 degree 55' to 36
degree 5' of East longitude. The district is sorrounded by
Cuttack district in North and North-East, Nayagarh district
in West, Puri district in South and by Ganjam district in
South-West. The Chilika lake is located in the south of the
district. As per 1991 census the total population of the
district is 15,02,014 and the growth rate is 2.4 % per annum.
According to 1991 census there are 4.35 lakh main workers,
6.00 lakh marginal workers and 10.52 lakh non-workers in the
district. So far SC,ST population is concerned there are
2,01,284 SC and 77,242 ST people residing in the district.
The percentage of literacy is 57.34 % in the district.
2. History of Land Revenue Administration:
The historical evidences which have come to light so far
about the Revenue Administration, ancient and mediaval Orissa
is quite different from the Revenue Administration prevailing
in the modern Orissa. Prior to the advent of Afghan & Moghul
rule, the revenue administration was based on through
scrutiny & local knowledge of the officials with proper
checks & balances. The whole kingdom was divided in to
certain broad divisions called Mandals and each Mandal was
sub-divided in to vishyas which more or less correspond to
modern districts. The vishyas are also sub-divided in to
smaller units known as Bhoga, Bhakti, Khanda, Panchali and
the smallest unit was grama or village. But during the
period of Gangas & Gajapaties the designations of revenue
divisions are changed from Mandal to Dandapat, Vishya to Bisa
In the year 1568 A.D., the Afghans conquered Orissa but they
have no opportunity to establish their rules. Then came the
Moghuls. On Moghul conquest Orissa was broadly divided in to
two parts for land revenue administration. Gadjat or
Killajat or Rajwara remained under the hill chiefs who
tendered submission and agreed to pay an annual revenue
either in cash or kind. The remaining area were under direct
administration of Moghuls which was called as Mogolbandi. A
portion of it was assigned as Jagir to High military and
civil personnel. The revenue of the Jagir was not paid to
public exchequer but was appropriated by the Jagirdars. The
revenue from the Khalsa was paid to the State Exchequer.
Allivardi Khan practically handed over Orissa to the hands of
Marhattas by the Treaty of 1751 A.D. The river Subarnarekha
formed the boundary between Bengal & Orissa whose souther
frontiers extended to Malud. The Marhattas did not make any
substantial change in the revenue system of Orissa existing
then. They divided the Mughalbandi in to 4 chakalas or
divisions namely Cuttack, Bhadrak, Soro & Balasore and about
The English expedition for the conquest started from South
from Ganjam on 8th Sept.1803 A.D. and from North from
Jaleswar on 23rd Sept.1803 A.D. under the commandership of
Col.Harcourt. Puri fell to the British on 20th Sept. &
Barabati Fort on 10th October in the same year.
In June 1804 the province was divided in to two divisions -
Northern & Southern with river Mahanadi as the boundary
between them, each under a Collector. Robert Ker & Charies
Greme were appointed as the Judge, Magistrate & Collector of
the Northern Division & Southern Division respectively.
J.Hunter was sent to Puri as acting Collector of Lord
Jagannath. By Regulation XIII of 1805 the two Divisions were
amalgamated and was placed under the Collector, with
headquarters at Puri. Tahasildars were stationed at
Balasore, Jajpur & Khurda and the fourth held charge of Khas
Mahals. In the year 1817 the headquarter was shifted from
Puri to Cuttack under the petition of Zamidars. By Govt.
Order in 23rd Oct.1928 the province was divided in to three
district namely Balasore, Cuttack & Jagannath later known as
Puri. Messers R.Rickets, R.Hunter & W.Wilkinson were
appointed as first Magistrate & Collector of Balasore,
Cuttack & Puri respectively. The districts of Ganjam &
Koraput were formed a part of the newly created Orissa
province on 1st April 1936 on being separated from Modern
Presidency and the district Sambalpur was also created after
separated from Bihar.
After independence in 1947 the State of Orissa has been
sub-divided in to 13 districts and further in the year
1993-94 the 13 districts have been sub-divided 30 districts.
The present Khurda district is a part of earstwhile Puri
3. History of Settlement
During the period of Moghul dynasty Raja Todar Mal attempted
to survey & settlement of Suba Bengal between the year
1582-1587. For the purpose of settlement lands were
classified in to 4 classes according to their capability of
annual cultivation. After measurement, assessment was made
on the basis of area, quality of land and average of previous
10 years produce. Raja Todar Mall for the most part left
untouched the border chieftains from settlement of revenue.
Khurda together with the states of Lambai, Chaubiskhand,
Rahang & Sarai was assigned to Raja Rama Chandra Dev and to
the Temple of Lord Jagannath. The Raja of Khurda received
the rank of Commander of 3500 and under his control were
placed 31 Zamindars with 129 Killahs.
The first settlment under British rule was concluded in the
year 1804-1805 followed by a Triennial Settlement from 1805
to 1808. Second one year Settlement was also conducted in
1808-1809. The Settlement of 1808 produced a revenue of
Rs.14,38,982/- including Khurda & permanently settled estates
of Garjat States. In the year 1817, the great Paika
Rebellion broke out in Khurda. It awakened the British
Government to a positive stand and out look towards the
landed proprietors as well as the peasantry. Govt. realised
that there was something wrong intrinsically in their revenue
Actual Settlement was started in the year 1887 & ended in
1845 by order of the Governor General and certain rules &
procedures for settlement was adopted. The procedures that
was adopted from beginning to the end has been described by
Maddox in his book "Final Report on the survey and settlement
of the Province of Orissa". The next settlement was taken up
in the year 1890 and was concluded in 1900. It was commonly
known as Maddox Settlement.
4. Present Settlment Operation:
As the agrarian policy of the British Govt. and sporadic
revisions of the tenancy laws failed to keep pace with the
changing time, the first & foremost task of the popular
Government in 1947 was to reform the existing tenancy laws,
to make the laws instruments capable of providing adequate
safety & security to the cultivators, to generate in him a
sense of belongingness of the land he was cultivating, to
provide subsistence to his family members and to bring him in
direct contact with the Government machinery after the
elimination of the middleman. The Land Revenue and Land
tenure Committee commonly known as "Naba Krushna Chaudhury
Committee" submitted its report to the Government in July
1949. The Committee recommended for the abolition of
Zamindari system as the first phase of land reform measures.
The first settlement operation in the independent India was
started in the year 1954 and all the settlement procedures
have been completed in 1962.
The need for consolidation of holding was felt very seriously
in Orissa in 1970. In 1970 four officers from State Govt.
were deputed to U.P. & Punjab to study the working of the
consolidation scheme in these states. On their return a
separate organisation was set up under the control of the
Board of Revenue with a nucleus staff. The State Govt. has
decided to take up pre-consolidation work in 6 units.
Accordingly pre-consolidation work started in the units at
Sonepur, Baragarh, Angul, Salipur, Pipili & Boudh under the
supervison of a Asst. Consolidation Officer in each unit.
Consolidation means amalgamation and re-distribution of a
parcel or parcels of land comprised in different holdings of
a unit for the purpose of rendering such holdings more
compact. It is applicable only in case of Agricultural land.
The actual consolidation work has been taken up in the state
in some selected areas since January 1974 till the end of
March 1988. An area of about 5.70 lakh hectres in 4264
villages in the district of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Ganjam,
Keonjhar, Dhenkanal, Sambalpur, Bolangir & Mayurbhanj has
been completed under consolidation operation. The map and
record of right for the rest of the land are deemed to have
been prepared under the Orissa Survey & Settlement Act.1958.
On the basis of the act the 2nd settlement operation has been
started in some areas of Khurda district since 1997-98.
5. Official Responsibility :
Jurisdiction Main Function
1.Collector Throughout 1) Supervision of land revenue &
the District collection Throughout the district
2) Revised Revenue case disposal of
ADM, SDM, Tahasildars under
different revenue Acts/Rule
3) District Law & order
administration through police & magistrate.
4) Original jurisdiction as
Certificate Officer for
certificate dues above Rs.25 lakhs.
5) Revisional Authority in
Misc. Certificate Cases /
money lending cases /OGLS act.
6) Appellate authority in OPDR act/OLR act.
7) Approval & sanction of
developmental schemes under DRDA,DUDA etc.
8) Heads Dist. Level committies of Banks
Education,Health, Agricultural strateg
9) As the main functionary of relief and
rehabilitation during natural calamity.
10) Has statuatry functions under several enactments
like CrPC, Arms Act, NS Act, E.C. Act, Excise Act
MV Act, Orissa Forest Act.
11) As the head of Excise administration.
12) Head of Regional Transport Authority
which regulates vechicle registration etc.
13) Sypervise Social Assistance Schemes under State
& Central Govt.
2. Addl.District Throughout 1) Supervision of land revenue
Magistrate, the Khurda collection.
Khurda Sub-divn. 2) Supervision of disposal of
appellate authority in OPDR/
OLR regulation-2 of 1956
4) Revisional authority of
OPLE/OPDR/OGLS Act etc.
5) Original jurisdiction in
certificate cases above
lakh to less than 25 lakhs.
3. Addl.District Throughout As above
4. Sub-Collector, Throughout 1) Original jurisdiction as
Khurda Khurda Certificate Officers where
Sub-divn. certificate dues in above
2) Revenue Officer u/s 22 &
23 of OLR Act.
5. Sub-Collector, Throughout As above.
6. Tahasildar, Bhubaneswar 1) Collection of land revenue,
Bhubaneswar Tahasil royalty, water rent etc. &
disposal of all types of
revenue cases as below.
2) Original Jurisdiction in
mutation / OPLE / Misc.
3) As Certificate Officer for
recovery of arrear land
revenue and public demand.
4) As authorised officer for
collection of premium money
for conversion of land from
agrilculture to non -
agriculture. Use u/s 8(A)
of OLR Act.
5) Assessment of ayacut area
to water rate.
6) Any other work assigned to
him by Collector or
7. Tahasildar, Khurda As above.
8. Tahasildar, Banpur As above.
9. Tahasildar, Jatni As above
10. Tahasildar, Begunia As above
11 Tahasildar, Bolagarh As above
12 Tahasildar, Tangi As above